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Science Coursework - ISAs

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ISA Your teacher will suggest as method for the investigation as you will not be assessed on this Then you will be assessed on: - Drawing a results table Carrying out the experiment Drawing a graph Completing the final exam section 1 related to your experiment, section 2 related to the area of science Saturday, April 25, 2015

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Table Try to make it easy to read Have clear titles for your rows and columns Include units in the titles Allow enough columns to collect repeats and work out an average

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Practical Skills Assessment 2 Marks Work safely but with some assistance Sometimes works in a disorderly manner 4 Marks Works safely and organised Uses apparatus skilfully without assistance 6 Marks Demonstrate competence with range of equipment Measurements are to an appropriate degree of accuracy Data collected carefully as you complete the work

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Graphing Use as much of the piece of graph paper as you can Carefully label the axis using an appropriate scale (starting at 0) Give the graph a sensible title Carefully plot points Draw a line of best fit (which may be curved) (Note: do not join up the dots!) If you are drawing a bar chart: remember the key and make sure the bars are even sizes And lastly remember a ruler and pencil

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Exam What your aim was What you measured What you changed The Independent and dependent variables The control variables (key variables) How it was reliable How it was precise How it was accurate What your results show and why they show this What the control was and why it was used What type of data was collected and why it was this type What the anomalies were and why they occurred What type of errors occurred (random, systematic) How you could improve the investigation Was it a valid experiment

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Keywords (AQA Glossary) bar chart scattergram bias accuracy categoric conclusion directly proportional casual link validity random change random error continuous zero error control variable discrete systematic error sensitivity precision hypothesis mean ordered independent control group link linear fair test line of best fit evidence dependent data anomalous ethical calibration

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Keywords Reliability – the trustworthiness of data collected Precision – where repeat results are close together (related to the smallest scale division on the measuring instrument used) Accuracy – how close to the true value you are Categoric data – non-numerical data (e.g. Magnesium; Copper; Oxygen) Ordered data – data which can be ordered (e.g. small, large, huge lumps of rock) Discrete data – numerical but are only whole numbers Continuous data – any numerical value Systematic error – data is inaccurate in a constant way (e.g. all results are 10mm less than they should be (indicates method inaccuracies))

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Keywords Validity – evidence which can be reproduced by others and answers the original postulation Bias – influence placed on scientific evidence due to wanting to prove your own ideas; supporting your financer; political influence etc… Data – measurements or observations of a variable Bar chart – used when independent variable is categoric and the dependent variable is continuous Mean – addition of measurements and division by number of measurements taken Scattergram – used to see how variables relate to each other (e.g. people’s age and size) Linear – straight line graphs that can be positive or negative

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Keywords Evidence – scientific evidence should be reliable and valid (could be an observation a measurement etc…) Anomalous – measurement which is well away from the pattern shown by other results Control group – often used when there are large numbers of control variables which cannot be kept constant (e.g. drug testing on people – ½ will receive drug, other ½ will not (placebo)) Independent – variable you have decided to change Dependent – variable measuring as a results of changing the independent variable Hypothesis – theory used to suggest explanations for observations

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Keywords Conclusion – consideration of the results stating how they matched the hypothesis (it must not go beyond the data collected) Casual link – one change in a variable has caused a change in another variable Zero error – a systematic error having an incorrect zero (e.g. forgetting that the end of the ruler is not at zero) Control variable – these may affect your results so must be kept constant Line of best fit – shows underlying relationships between the independent and dependent variables (it should fit the pattern in the results) Random change – changes which cannot be predicted

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Keywords Random error – measurements when repeated are rarely exactly the same (probably due to human error) Directly proportional – graph will show this is the line is straight (and through the origin) Ethical – whether it is right or wrong to do something Link – due to association when two variables change together but they are both linked to a third variable (lack of CO2 and poor growth may be due to too much water in soil); and due to chance when there is no scientific link between two variables (number of pirates and size of prized cucumber in county shows) Fair test – only the independent variable is affecting the dependent Sensitivity – smallest change an instrument can measure

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