Presentation on theme: "Progressive Era Politics Ms. Jerome. Progressives in Politics Rejected laissez-faire capitalism Why did they reject laissez-faire? Viewed government as."— Presentation transcript:
Progressive Era Politics Ms. Jerome
Progressives in Politics Rejected laissez-faire capitalism Why did they reject laissez-faire? Viewed government as a potentially positive force for change and reform—used to combat monopolies and corruption in government Wanted to bring respectability back into politics
Progressive Era Presidents
State Reforms: Improving Democracy Secret Ballot Privacy at the ballot box ensures that citizens can cast votes without party bosses knowing how they voted. Initiative Allows voters to petition state legislatures in order to consider a bill desired by citizens. Voters create (Prop 8) Referendum Allows voters to decide if a bill or proposed amendment should be passed. Lawmakers create Recall Allows voters to petition to have an elected representative removed from office. Mayor Walter Jones Direct Primary Ensures that voters select candidates to run for office, rather than party bosses.
Federal Reforms Government Intervention I. Constitutional Amendments II. Pendleton Act 1881/Civil Service Reform III. Sherman Anti Trust Act 1890 IV. Interstate Commerce Act 1887 V. TEDDY ROOSEVELT: I. Elkins Act 1903 II. Hepburn Act 1906 III. Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 IV. Meat Inspection Act 1906 VI. Clayton Anti Trust Act 1914
I. Progressive Era Amendments 16th (1913) Granted Congress the power to tax income. 17th (1913) Provided for the direct election of U.S. Senators. 18th (1919) Prohibited making, selling, or transporting alcohol. 19th (1920) Provided women suffrage (voting).
II. Pendleton Act Background: Issue: Government Corruption For over 80 years presidents and federal politicians had “rewarded” their supporters with government jobs. Patronage or “Spoils System” * This is what got Jim McGreevey into trouble
An end to political patronage Date: 1881 Victim: President James Garfield Villain: Charles Guiteau Reason: Garfield refused to hire him for a government position Aftermath: outcry to end *patronage
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act Passed under President Chester Alan Arthur Pendleton Act was a “federal civil service” appointing government employees on the basis of competitive examinations, rather than by political patronage What did it say? Federal workers would now be hired based on competitive exams rather than political influence.
Interstate Commerce Act THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT STEPPING IN??? 1887 Particularly targeting railroad industry: Shipping rates had to be "reasonable and just" Rates had to be published Secret rebates were outlawed Price discrimination against small markets was made illegal. Gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates.Interstate Commerce Commission Led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers In addition, the ICC could view the railroads' financial records
Sherman Anti-Trust Act The President's weapon vs business. The Sherman Antitrust Act, passed by Congress in This law declared illegal all combinations "in restraint of trade” (i.e. a monopoly) Did little initially United States courts routinely sided with business when any enforcement of the Act was attempted. Teddy Roosevelt would use it to break up TRUSTS
Robert LaFolette Wisconsin Senator “Fighting Bob” One of the most notable politicians of the Progressive movement Advocated Women's suffrage. Father of the American Progressive Movement and he spoke passionately for the "common man." Man who knew no fear.
La Follette Robert M. La Follette -- governor of Wisconsin in Helped Wisconsin establish a railroad regulation commission to set fair freight rates. Advocated graduated state income tax A pure food law was voted in Wisconsin. A direct primary system was enacted
Teddy Roosevelt: Believed a president should take an active role as an arbiter between the demands of laborers and profit- driven businesses Square Deal—Corporate Control, Conservation, Consumerism
Hepburn Act:1906 under TR The Hepburn Act is a 1906 US FEDERAL LAW Gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates.Interstate Commerce Commission Led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers In addition, the ICC could view the railroads' financial records
Good vs. Bad Trusts This was the core of Theodore Roosevelt's leadership. He boiled everything down to a case of right versus wrong and good versus bad. If a trust controlled an entire industry but provided good service at reasonable rates, it was a "good" trust to be left alone. Only the "bad" trusts that jacked up rates and exploited consumers would come under attack. Who would decide the difference between right and wrong? Teddy himself Notably –broke up Standard Oil
Roosevelt became known as a “trust buster” Objective was to break up bad trusts
Environment and the Industrial Revolution Forests throughout the country were depleted; some estimates indicated that only about 20 percent of the original woodlands remained in 1900 Establishes the National Parks System to preserve the land for future generations
Roosevelt on Conservation "We have fallen heirs to the most glorious heritage a people ever received, and each one must do his part if we wish to show that the nation is worthy of its good fortune." Theodore Roosevelt