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“The Long 1990s” – November 1989 to September 2001 “The Long European 19 th Century” – 1789 to 1919.

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Presentation on theme: "“The Long 1990s” – November 1989 to September 2001 “The Long European 19 th Century” – 1789 to 1919."— Presentation transcript:

1 “The Long 1990s” – November 1989 to September 2001 “The Long European 19 th Century” – 1789 to 1919

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5 Government Shutdown Budget for 1996 Republicans proposed – tax cuts for wealthy – Reduced spending on welfare and Social Security – Gingrich: “largest domestic decision we’ve made since It’s a change in direction of government” Denouncing big govt. vs. cutting back entitlements Clinton vetoed … and won – “triangulation”: positioning self at top of triangle between liberal and conservative bases

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7 1996 Election Bob Dole – Senator from Kansas, v.p. candidate with Ford `76 – v.p. Jack Kemp Clinton – Family values: gangs, teen pregnancy, smoking, V-chip, Defense of Marriage Act – Change 1935’s Aid to Families and Dependent Children (welfare) – Campaigning and fund raising Lincoln Bedroom

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10 Monica Lewinsky White House intern – “intimate contact” 1995 – 1997 Complex developments – Ken Starr and Whitewater – Paula Corbin Jones sexual harassment suit January 1998: “I did not have sexual relations with that woman. I never told anybody to lie” August 1998: “I did have a relationship that was not appropriate” August 1998: American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania

11 Monica-gate Starr Report – 445 pages, spared “no details” Presidential affair vs. perjury and obstruction of justice Midterm Elections 1998: Democrat gains Impeachment: December 1998 – Charge of perjury about Lewinsky; obstruction of justice in Jones case Same December day – Ordered air strikes on Iraq “Not Guilty” by wide margin

12 May 1997 Barbara Walters 20/20 interview, March 1999

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14 Vietnam 1995 – reestablished diplomatic relations – Aided by John Kerry and John McCain stating that Vietnam was not hiding POWs

15 Iraq In April 1993, Bush I visited Kuwait to be honored for his leadership during the Gulf War – On final day, Kuwaiti officials stopped a plot to assassinate Bush with truck bomb – Clinton ordered retaliation with missiles on Iraqi intelligence headquarters in Baghdad In 1994, Saddam deployed 80,000 troops near the Kuwaiti border – Clinton responded by adding 100s of planes and 50,000 troops to the area A “Between the War” period in Iraq – Between “Persian Gulf War” (1991) and “Operation Iraqi Freedom” (2003)

16 In early 1998, Saddam had begun to expel U.N. arms inspectors and to violate the no-fly zones – Clinton stepped up U.S. military presence in Persian Gulf region for possible war with Iraq – Clinton relented only when Saddam permitted U.N. arms inspectors to go through his palaces In December 1998, by which time Saddam totally stopped U.N. arms inspections, Clinton asserted that Iraq was developing weapons of mass destruction – U.S. and British planes launched Operation Desert Fox, which featured four days of around-the-clock air attacks on Iraqi sites. – Anglo-American raids resume in January 1999 and continued, on and off, until the U.S. invaded Iraq in 2003 From the immediate days after Desert Storm, through the Clinton years, into Bush II, and after the invasion in 2003, the premise of U.S. foreign policy - that Saddam had built WMD - was wrong – All the assumptions made and dangers voiced about the extent of Iraq’s weapons were incorrect

17 Ethnic Cleansing by Bosnian Serbs Yugoslavia ripped itself apart, producing the only big war in Europe since WWII From 1991 to 1995, Bosnia symbolized the chaos that many had feared the end of the Cold War would unleash – As the six republics of Yugoslavia went their separate ways after the collapse of communism, the small republic of Bosnia exploded Cold War had kept under wraps the “ancient ethnic hatreds” among Serbs, Muslims, and Croats – In the most ethnically mixed of the former Yugoslav states, the violence involved a shocking level of brutality – Thousands of civilians, mostly Muslims, were driven out of their homes and terrorized By summer of 1995, Bosnian death toll neared 300,000, and more than one million were refugees – attracted Islamic extremists to help defend Muslims Two of the 9/11 hijackers fought in Bosnia

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19 U.S., UN, NATO nervous and cautious about being swept in (`94 - `95) – UN used weak force of peacekeepers Massacre at “safe town” of Srebrenica, July 1995 U.S. air strikes against Bosnian Serbs – Meddling in far away civil war? Dayton Peace Accords – Bosnian War ( ): Serbs vs. Croats. ended in a stalemate – Slobodan Milosevic European version of Saddam, a strongman who ruthlessly clung to power and who stoked regional instability In contrast, Milosevic didn’t support terrorist groups, seek to acquire WMD or control oil – 60,000 NATO troops - including 20,000 Americans - were on the ground in Bosnia to enforce the settlement – Dayton gave Clinton the reputation of a global peacemaker

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22 Clinton = Gary Cooper’s character in High Noon – “High Noon affected my view of the world because Gary Cooper was scared to death, and he did the right thing anyway” – “ We’ve got to counter the downside of troops with the upside of peace” High Noon also characterized America’s behavior as a world power midway through the 1990s – a worried sheriff trying to round up an uncertain global posse – By 1996, after the mission in Bosnia proved successful (and with no U.S. deaths), foreign nations noticed the new confidence of the U.S. – “impotence had been replaced by determination, division had been replaced by unity”

23 Ethnic Cleansing by Bosnian Serbs 1999: savagery in Kosovo – Clinton supported NATO bombing – Serbia and Montenegro vs. Kosovo and NATO. De facto NATO victory in 1 st NATO war Turning point in post-Cold War history of U.S. foreign policy – When U.S. used its power to stop killing in Europe, fighting stopped – End of Cold War did not mean U.S. could stay home

24 Clinton: “we cannot be indifferent, at home or abroad. That is why we are in Kosovo” – Milosevic not a threat to U.S.; Kosovo not vital to America The First “Humanitarian War” – chronologically, Kosovo was the last American-led conflict of the twentieth century – supporters believed it could exemplify a new 21st century American way of war: using airpower alone to pummel an enemy into surrendering without suffering a single American casualty from enemy attack (a first for U.S. forces in sustained combat) – Also marked the first time an alliance of 19 countries had used its collective military might not to roll back an invasion, thwart an immediate threat, or respond to an attack, but for purposes described as “humanitarian” - to end a sovereign government’s repression of its own citizens – defending principle that a country’s government had to be held responsible for how it treated its own citizens: the “responsibility to protect” and the “right to intervene”

25 NAFTA to GATT to WTO

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29 1990s Culture APUSH Final Project: Decades: The 1990s – Fads of the 90s –

30 90s Culture “Culture Wars and Decline” Conservatives: America was in “decline” and liberals were to blame for “culture wars” that were dividing the nation – Targets: America’s “hedonistic culture,” its “uninhibited display of sexuality,” its “popularization of violence,” its “angry activists of feminism, homosexuality, environmentalism, animal rights” – Everywhere were “signs of decadence, decay, and self- destruction.” America was “sinking in greed” and in “sexual rot and gratuitous violence” Remember the fates of ancient Rome and Greece, and of the British Empire! America “is in precipitous decline” – Many outraged by what they perceived as expanding evils: sexuality immorality, violent crime, vulgarity and sensationalism in the media, schools without standards, trash that passed as “art”

31 A “massive collapse of almost all established values” threatened to destroy American civilization – a jury awarded a woman $2.9 million because she had spilled hot coffee from McDonald’s that had badly scalded her – Clinton responded to a question on MTV whether he wore boxers or briefs. Perhaps thinking of the youth vote, Clinton replied “usually boxers”

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33 Highly publicized acts of violence added to a popular sense that the nation was coming apart – Operation Rescue killed seven people: doctors and patients in abortion clinics – In 1995, two anti-government zealots, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, succeeded in blowing up the federal building in Oklahoma City, killing 168 people – In 1996, a pipe bomb exploded at the Atlanta Olympics, killing one person – In 1998, two gay haters beat a 21-year-old gay man, Matthew Shepard, and tied him to fence outside Laramie, Wyoming

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35 The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) funded two photographic exhibits that touched off new controversies over high culture – One exhibit, by photographer Andres Serrano, featured a shot of the crucifix in a jar of his urine. It was called “Piss Christ” – The second exhibit, by Robert Mapplethorpe, included a photograph that turned the Virgin Mary into a tie rack Mapplethorpe also showed images of a bullwhip in his anus; another depicting a man urinating in another man’s mouth Congress, led by conservatives, reluctantly reauthorized funding for the NEA, but at reduced levels – On condition that it sponsor works that were “sensitive to the general standards of decency”

36 Religious conservatives battled over the content of textbooks; whether to include Sacajawea, Cesar Chavez, Frederick Douglass, and Malcolm X Conservatives also continued to fight against sex education and Darwinian messages in biology books

37 Prosperity caused materialistic values to rise – Credit card debt reached new heights – Casino gambling and mega lotteries expanded Image-conscious Americans bought name-brand bottled water, pricey coffee, SUVs, cosmetic surgery, “McMansions” in style of Colonial Williamsburg or Godfather Mediterranean Satirizing the tastelessness of “Bobos”, materialistic Americans who were both bohemian and bourgeois – Kitchens so large that they looked like “aircraft hangers with plumbing” – Kitchens with eating counters, TVs, bookshelves and computer areas: “Guests needed a map to find the drink station”

38 Focus on sex, always good for sales, was even more gratuitous and graphic – Michael Jackson produced a video, “Black and White” in which he grabbed his crotch, unzipped and zipped his fly, and simulated masturbation – Roseanne clutched her crotch and spat on the ground after singing the national anthem, deliberately off-key at a Padres game – Madonna published Sex, a coffee-table book of photographs of herself, some of which displayed her hitchhiking and hang-gliding nude. It made $25 million in its first week – Two-thirds of TV shows had some sexual content during the prime- time hours of 7 to 11 p.m.

39 The “gross-out” nature of popular culture was extensive – Profane radio “shock-jocks” like Howard Stern used bathroom humor – It was common to hear words and phrases on radio and TV such as “kiss my a --,” “b*tch,” “pi—ed off,” and “this sucks” Long gone were the days when Clark Gable said “damn” in 1939; when words like “pregnant” and “virgin” were banned on the air in 1950s By contrast, in the 1990s, profanity occurred once every six minutes on over-air TV and once every two minutes on cable – The boob tube became a negative vocabulary builder

40 In 1999, the British television show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? was revised (and dumbed down) for U.S. audiences and became a top-rated program The Jerry Springer Show featured guests who humiliated themselves and fought on stage – Married for five years to a horse! Romance with a dog! Sex and violence increased over the course of the 1990s, especially on cable TV – In 1997, Comedy Central featured South Park, with foul-language and racially offensive jokes – In 1998, Sex and the City highlighted swinging young people Defenders of TV pointed to smoothly crafted shows such as Cheers, The Cosby Show, ER, NYPD Blue, and Frasier

41 Cops, a long-running program, captivated viewers by showing car chases, fights, and arrests – The blending of “reality” and editing Local TV news focused on bloody car wrecks, shootings, stabbings, and fires – “If it bleeds, it leads” Celebrity culture and sensational stories – Newsweek covers showed celebrities on 1/3 of issues and while world leaders on 1/10 – When an angry, abused wife, Lorena Bobbitt, cut off her husband’s penis in 1993, the media hardly reported anything else Little difference between news and entertainment – “Personalities” masquerading as newspeople with “info-tainment” – Larry King on CNN for $7 million a year, Geraldo Rivera on CNBC for $8 million a year

42 The contrast between the 1990s and the Cold War’s emphasis on national security was illustrated by Time magazine’s naming three CEOs as persons of the year – CNN’s Ted Turner in 1991, Intel’s Andrew Grove in 1997, and Amazon’s Jeff Bezos in 1999 The last time a CEO had won was Walter Chrysler in 1928

43 Ownership and control of the media was ever more concentrated in huge multimedia corporations – General Electric owned NBC; Viacom owned CBS; Walt Disney Company owned ABC; and Time Warner owned CNN – Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation, a sprawling international business, was busy buying radio and television outlets, sports teams, newspapers, magazines, and film companies The conservative slant of Murdoch’s empire enraged liberals

44 Some rap groups used bad language and misogyny – 2 Live Crew’s “An Nasty as They Wanna Be,” used the “F” word more than 200 times, offered more than 80 descriptions of oral sex, and shouted “b*tch” more than 150 times Stars of “gangsta rap” focused on misogynistic and other hateful messages – One rap song, Ice-T’s “Cop Killer,” released in the aftermath of the L.A. riots, urged audiences to kill cops – N.W.A famously said: “F*ck the Police”

45 Jerry Seinfeld, producer and lead character of Seinfeld, made $66 million in `96-`97 season. Tim Allen, star of Home Improvement, got $2 million per show in 1997 Arnold Schwarzenegger received $15 million for Terminator 2: Judgment Day, $20 million for Jingle All the Way, and $25 million for Batman and Robin Michael Jordan received $70 million, most of it from endorsements – So long as celebrities avoided scandals, corporate sponsors competed vigorously for their presence in commercials Other celebrities prospered – Steven Spielberg earned $175 million per year, and Harrison Ford $53 million per year – Both Spielberg and Ford paid their former spouses more than $100 million in divorce settlements

46 Movies focused on gore and ghoulishness – The RoboCop series, Goodfellas, Silence of the Lambs, Natural Born Killers, Fargo, and Pulp Fiction relied on blood and noise Near-naked bodies seemed to be required – Basic Instinct, Body of Evidence, Titanic Filmmakers churched out lots of inoffensive stuff: chase and spy dramas, historical epics, comedies, kids’ fare, and boy- meets-girl romances with happy endings – Home Alone, Sleepless in Seattle, Forrest Gump, Twister, As Good as it Gets, and You’ve Got Mail – Innovative computer-generated and animated films, such as Jurassic Park, The Lion King, and Toy Story – Sports movies: Field of Dreams, A League of Their Own, and Rudy – Well regarded films on serious subjects also had good runs: Glory, My Left Foot, Schindler’s List, Apollo 13

47 World Cups 1994 – Some hoped that Americans would go back to ignoring soccer “Whenever the Americans like something, they take it over” World Cup conquered the USA rather than vice versa – People stopped thinking soccer was posh and boring The murder of Andres Escobar, the Colombian who scored an own goal, helped persuade Americans that this thing really mattered - this was the World Cup

48 World Cups 1999

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50 Los Angeles O.J. Simpson Rodney King

51 Polls in the mid-1990s suggested that most Americans considered themselves fortunate to live in the U.S., which they perceived as a dynamic, forward-looking, and efficient society – In 1994, a poll asked: “Earlier in American history, many people thought the U.S. was the best place in the world to live. Do you still think it is, or not?” – 80% - from college graduates to high school dropouts – answered yes The same interviewer found similar results in For the middle classes, “the idea of living in any other nation is barely conceivable”

52 90s Tech Modern Marvels – full episode –

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54 Election 2000 Bush v. Gore

55 Predicted as a coronation for Gore – served loyally under Clinton; best foreign policy advisor – economy booming, the federal budget produced surplus, Republicans failed on impeachment Yet in campaign: Gore stuck, offering jumbled ideas – like every incumbent vice president running Gore struggled to move out of Clinton’s shadow praising the administration’s accomplishments was tricky after impeachment and “Clinton fatigue”

56 Other candidates also entered – Ralph Nader for the Green Party – Patrick Buchanan for the Reform Party Nader rode the leftist backlash with an anti-corporate, anti- interventionist approach and rallying against free trade – a Pied Piper for disaffected progressives, channeling the anger against Democratic foreign policy and vs. NAFTA, GATT, WTO

57 Gore and Bush faced opponents in the primaries – Gore beat Bill Bradley in early contests and wrapped up nomination by Super Tuesday in March – Senator Joseph Lieberman of Connecticut as running mate Lieberman was the first Jew in American history to receive such a major party nomination Bush, buoyed by rough campaign tactics and enormous war chest, beat down John McCain and wrapped up nomination by Super Tuesday – Dick Cheney, his father’s conservative defense secretary, as VP

58 Contest was too close to call – race itself was tight, but it was unexciting until the election itself Bush emphasized “ownership society” in which enterprising people, not government, are dominant – criticized Clinton for risking lives of soldiers and for “nation building” “I don’t want to try to put our nation’s troops in all places at all times. I don’t want to be the world’s policeman” Bush said he stood for “compassionate conservatism”; would be “a uniter, not a divider” – Cooperate with Democrats and break the partisan gridlock of the 90s

59 Bush and Gore called for higher defense spending – but neither candidate talked about nuclear proliferation or terrorism subject of terrorism did not arise in debates – focus, as in most previous elections, was on economy Most political pundits predicted Gore win – experienced national politician – squandered his advantages smirking, sighing, rolling his eyes considered “stiff,” “wooden,” and pompous seemed to flip-flop on positions to please different audiences

60 Election did not excite voters – only 55.6 % voted – voters said they did not admire either candidate and they were disgusted with politics – election, they said, pitted “Gush versus Bore” – others said they saw little difference between the two, and derided the contest as a “Seinfeld election” it was about nothing, and it didn’t matter

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64 Gore edged Bush in the popular vote – Gore: 50,992,235 (48.4 % of the total) Bush: 50,455,156 (47.9 % of the total) margin of 537,179 As in 1992 and 1996, neither candidate had won 50 % of vote – Gore scored well with low-income and new immigrant voters, city dwellers, supporters of gun control, labor unions, women, and blacks, winning 90 % of African-American votes – Bush won in rural areas, 54 % of white voters and 59 % of regular churchgoers Gore seemed to have 267 electoral college votes, three short of the number needed; Bush appeared to have 246 – Focus on Florida 25 electoral votes remained at stake If Bush could win there, where the “final count” gave him a margin of 1,784 votes (out of 5.9 million cast), he would have at least 271 electoral votes – Whoever won Florida would become the next president

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68 Bush reminded country that the networks said he won Florida on election night – his brother, Jeb, Florida’s Republican governor, said the Florida numbers were correct 36 days of legal battles – disputes about weird ballots used in various Florida counties – In predominantly Democratic Palm Beach County, more than 3,000 voters – many of them elderly Jews – were confused by “butterfly ballots” and mistakenly voted for Buchanan instead of Gore Some bewildered voters punched more than one hole; these “overvotes” were not valid – Elsewhere, partially punched ballots emerged, leaving “hanging,” “dimpled,” “pregnant,” or other kinds of “chads” These were “undervotes” – that is, ballots that voters may have tried to punch but that voting machines did not record as valid estimated that the total number of undervotes was 61,000 and overvotes 113,000

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72 Angry Democrats also charged that officials unfairly invalidated the registration of thousands of African- Americans and Latino voters, and tossed many ballots in predominantly black neighborhoods – Police, they claimed, intimidated blacks who therefore backed away from voting in some northern Florida counties Gore supporters further alleged that thousands of Floridians, some of them African Americans, were inaccurately included on long lists of felons and therefore denied the right to vote

73 Two days after election, late-arriving overseas ballots and machine recounts (required by law in close elections) had managed to cut Bush’s lead Gore’s team sought hand recounts of four predominantly Democratic counties where punch-card ballots had failed to register the clear intent of many voters The Florida Supreme Court intervened, approving manual recounts in the four counties Republicans asked the U.S. Supreme Court to review the issue

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77 In Bush v. Gore, Supreme Court ruled, 5-4 along party lines, that the recounts authorized by the Florida court violated the rights of voters to have their ballots evaluated fairly – Therefore, recount ran afoul of the equal protection clause That clause is normally used by liberals to protect the rights of minorities and other “out-groups” – The Court did not rule in favor of federalism and states’ rights as it had in previous voting cases The Court told Florida to stop counting – That decision ended the fight – Bush, having been certified as the winner in Florida by 537 votes, took Florida’s 25 electoral votes total of 271 in Electoral College, one more than needed The decision also stated: “This is limited to the present circumstances only” – Bush v. Gore had no standing as precedent

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81 Analysis suggested that if Nader had not run, Gore would have won, and without any legal hassles – In Florida, Nader received 97,488 votes, far more than Bush’s certified margin of 537 – Nader’s influence on the Democrats in 2000 was similar to Pat Buchanan’s impact on the Republicans in 1992 Bush supporters also presented “what ifs” – In each of four states Bush lost by narrow margins – Iowa, Wisconsin, Oregon, and New Mexico – number of votes for Buchanan exceeded the margins of victory – Those would have been 30 electoral votes for Bush, and he would have won without Florida Others pointed at the numerous flaws in electoral procedures – Many of these criticisms targeted the anachronism of the Electoral College, which not for the first time in U.S. history had played a key role in depriving the top vote getter of victory

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83 History “Begins” – Despite bitterness of 2000, many wanted smooth transition from Clinton to Bush – The Clinton - Bush transition meeting had Clinton reviewing international “hot spots”: Middle East, India and Pakistan, North Korea – But two of the most dangerous people, bin Laden and Saddam, still threatened U.S. “One of the greatest regrets of my presidency is that I didn’t get bin Laden for you, because I tried to,” Clinton said. And as for Saddam, Clinton warned that “he’s going to cause you a world of problems”

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85 The downsides of globalization were not confined to market fluctuations and outsourcing of jobs – The new openness meant that crime, drugs, and diseases could move around the globe more easily – So could terrorist organizations Clinton: the “explosive underbelly” of the new world – the “biggest problems to security will probably not come from rogue states or from governments, but from the enemies of nation-states, from terrorists and drug runners” – predicted they would “use the same things that fuel prosperity - open borders, the Internet, the miniaturization of technology - which will lead to smaller and more dangerous weapons” In Cold War, the enemies were easily identifiable countries – In the post-Cold War era, threats sprang up from secretive regimes and from semi-autonomous, state-less groups that were hard to locate

86 For years, public opinion polls had shown that Americans were worried about terrorism – particularly about the growing threat of Islamic extremism – In 1983, they were horrified by the bombing of the Marine barracks in Lebanon

87 1993 World Trade Center bombing Truck bomb detonated below the North Tower – intended to knock the North Tower into the South Tower, bringing both towers down Khaled Sheikh Mohammed and followers of Egyptian cleric Umar Abd al-Rahman

88 June 1996, truck bomb at the Khobar Towers, wrecked a residential complex for U.S. Air Force personnel in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Iranian-supported terrorist group Hezbollah was likely the culprit – only later did the 9/11 Commission raise the possibility of Al Qaeda Pentagon developed plans to strike military targets in Iran

89 Osama bin Laden From Saudi Arabia, to Afghanistan, to Saudi Arabia, to Sudan May 1996: from Sudan to Afghanistan – alliance with Taliban – anti-West themes: secularism, materialism, arrogance, support of women’s rights – Anger at U.S. soldiers in Saudi Arabia; and U.S. support of Israel Al Qaeda (terrorist network) – “Jihad against Jews and Crusaders” – Duty of every Muslim to kill Americans and their allies anywhere

90 August 1998: truck bombs blew up U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania – U.S. missile attacks on Al Qaeda base in Afghanistan and pharmaceutical plant in Sudan October 2000: U.S.S. Cole in Yemen

91 bin Laden’s affection for soccer did not stop him from plotting to massacre the American and British teams at the World Cup of 1998 in France – The terrorists planned to infiltrate Marseilles stadium, shoot some English players, blow up others, and throw grenades into the stands – Their colleagues were then to burst into the U.S. team’s hotel and murder players – Other would crash a plane into the local nuclear power station, causing meltdown The result would have been a European September 11 This plan reactivated “dormant terrorist networks” – One reason why Al Qaeda bombed Kenya and Tanzania in 1998 was “the failure of the primary operation, an attack on the World Cup”

92 Although Iran aided terrorism, U.S. worried about Al Qaeda – June 1995, Clinton issued a secret order, known as Presidential Decision Directive 39 to “deter” and “defeat” terrorist attacks by mid-decade bin Laden “was on the radar screen; in 1998 he was the radar screen” April 1996, a year after the bombing in Oklahoma City by home-grown terrorists, Clinton ominously said – “imagine that 3,000 people had been killed in the Oklahoma City bombings. That kind of loss can paralyze a country. It can take its heart out. It can take its confidence away.”

93 In 1996, Clinton noted the prevention of numerous attacks – United Nations, the Holland Tunnel, and a plot to bring down American passenger planes flying over the Pacific Ocean – “While we can defeat terrorists, it will be a long time before we can defeat terrorism” In 1998, Clinton also reported that al Qaeda had tried to kill the Pope and the President of Egypt Also by 1998, known that radical Muslim terrorists were considering - among many other ideas - hijacking commercial planes and crashing them into buildings late 1990s, U.S. intelligence groups recognized that the World Trade Center was one of a number of possible targets Millennium plots to bomb L.A. Airport, and American and Israeli tourists in Jordan in January 2000, were foiled between late 1990s and September 2011 urgent warnings to top officials about bin Laden and Al Qaeda – One warning titled “Bin Laden Determined to Strike in the U.S.” was delivered to Bush II on August 6, 2001

94 What a Wonderful World 2:40

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98 Bush vowed there would be “no going back” to the era before September 11 – “a time of false comfort in a dangerous world” “The surest way to avoid attacks on our own people is to engage the enemy where he lives and plans,” Bush said

99 “Going it alone” approach Even before 9/11 – Kyoto environment agreements – Nuclear weapons treaties – International Criminal Court Post 9/11 – New doctrine of pre-emption – Downgrading U.N. and NATO – Axis of Evil: “either for us or against us – Homeland Security & Patriot Act Support and criticism

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104 Milestones: Osama bin Laden Osama bin Laden, the mastermind of the most devastating attack on American soil in modern times and the most hunted man in the world, was killed in a firefight with United States forces in Pakistan on Sunday, May 1, /02/world/ osama- timeline.html?ref=asia /02/world/ osama- timeline.html?ref=asia

105 Images from May 2, 2011

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108 Support for Obama rose sharply following the killing of Osama, with a majority now approving of his overall job performance, as well as his handling of foreign policy, the war in Afghanistan and the threat of terrorism. 57% said they now approved of the president’s job performance, up from 46% last month. Bush had an 8-point increase after the capture of Saddam Hussein in December 2003.

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118 President Obama and members of his national security team receiving an update on Sunday, May 1. A classified document in front of Hillary Rodham Clinton was blurred before this photo was released.

119 Rarely has a photo revealed so little while evoking so much. – It shows an intent President Obama and other officials in the White House Situation Room, but tells little about what exactly the situation is, except that they are watching something off to the left. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton – Shocked? Awed? Dismayed? – Clinton said she does not recall what they were watching, and attributed her hand-to-mouth gesture to allergies.

120 FDNY Firefighters are shown in Times Square, after hearing the news that the 9-11 mastermind, Osama bin Laden, has been killed.

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122 A word cloud of more than 3,000 Washington Post readers' one-word reactions to the death of Osama bin Laden

123 Finding the Town Where He Was Hiding While Bin Laden had long been rumored to be hiding in remote tribal areas along the Pakistani-Afghan border, he had been living near the Pakistani Army’s military academy in Abbottabad, a medium-sized city, an hour north of Islamabad – the capital.

124 The Assault on Bin Laden’s Compound The raid of Bin Laden’s compound lasted about 40 minutes. He and his family had been living on the second and third floors of the main building, which was the last area to be cleared by American forces. Bin Laden resisted and was shot in the head in the final minutes of the gun battle. Three other men and a woman were also killed.

125 Bin Laden’s massive, highly secure compound is about eight times larger than other homes in the area. shocking to find “Geronimo” settled in Abbottabad for six years, “hiding in plain view” in a million- dollar house near Pakistani version of West Point.

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128 Results of Military Efforts

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130 THE HOPED-FOR RECONSTRUCTION Towers 2 and 3 will be initially limited to foundations and lower levels. Earliest completion for Tower 3 is 2015; there is no timetable for Tower 2.


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