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Dynamic Planet 2 nd year Volcanoes and Earthquakes I have approached this event by teaching a-q as individual sessions. Using the computer allows the team.

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Presentation on theme: "Dynamic Planet 2 nd year Volcanoes and Earthquakes I have approached this event by teaching a-q as individual sessions. Using the computer allows the team."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dynamic Planet 2 nd year Volcanoes and Earthquakes I have approached this event by teaching a-q as individual sessions. Using the computer allows the team members to teach themselves.

2 volc/cover2.html

3 Review the powerpoint show and look at the links at the end of the reading. ure/volcanoes.htm Excellent site for rock information! Must see ure/volcanoes.htm

4 Shield Volcano A shield volcano is is typically built by eruptions of fluid, basaltic lava. The take on the appearance of shield with the convex side facing upward. The Hawaiian Islands are an example of shield volcanoes.

5 Shield Volcano

6 Composite Volcano A composite volcano is built by alternating eruptions of lava and pyroclastic material. Composite volcanoes, also called stratovolcanoes, form tall conical mountains.


8 Cinder Cone Cinder cones are constructed from the deposition of cinders and other pyroclastic material. Tend to be smaller in height than stratovolcanoes and have an asymetric cone.

9 Lava Dome

10 Kinds of Eruptions work-video.htm (How volcanoes work 3:03) work-video.htm

11 Volcanic Hazards Lava Flows 3 Major Types of Lava Flow aa, pahoehoe, and pillow lava good pictures at Wikipedia


13 Volcanic Hazards - Lahar Lahar mudflow of volcanic ash and dust created when pyroclastic material is mobilized by melting snow or rain. An extremely dangerous environmental hazard. Excellent site – GLOSSARY with Pictures

14 Volcano Hazards

15 Volcanic Features Using Google video, research “crater lake”. A nice 1:04 video by is available from

16 Volcanic Features Should be able to identify and explain how this feature became to be.

17 Hotspots hawaiian_islands.htm hawaiian_islands.htm

18 Rocks

19 Seismograms and Characteristics of P, S, and Love Waves You should know which of the waves is the fastest, how the waves travels, which is considered body vs. surface waves, and HOW to determine the epicenter! smic_waves.htm smic_waves.htm (Especially Seismic Images) (Primary, Secondary, and Surface Waves)

20 Determine the Epicenter earthsci/eqwaves.htm Good starting site! nts/core/questions/question. cfm?Course=ESCI&TopicCo de=05&QNum=1&Wrong=0 nts/core/questions/question. cfm?Course=ESCI&TopicCo de=05&QNum=1&Wrong=0 - Practice Questions http://nemo.sciencecoursew - MUST DO!

21 Earth’s Interior Be able to name the various layers Why the layers are important? Where are the layers found?

22 Moho Layer (Where and) Why is this layer important? The boundary where Earth's crust meets Earth's upper mantle (approximately 31 mi/50 km below the surface), and where seismic waves travel at a different and more rapid rate than the crust or mantle.

23 Faults OL101/study/structur.htm Very good site with a lot of good pictures OL101/study/structur.htm





28 Measuring Ground Movement Mercalli Scale vs. Richter Scale Intensity should not be confused with magnitude (Mercalli Scale) (Richter Scale)

29 Interpret Isoseismic Lines drigue/geog458558/labs/i soseism.html Reinforces the difference between Richter Scale and Mercalli Scale and how to make and read isoseismal map drigue/geog458558/labs/i soseism.html

30 Emergency Preparedness

31 Climate Change as related to volcanic activity You should be able to understand the short term and long term effects. What gases are released and why are these gases important to the weather/climate? What level of the atmosphere does gases affected the climate? What is the “Year without a Summer”? For help, you should be able to ask last year’s Meteorology team members.

32 Topographic Map ographic.cfm - Good background mpus/topo_profiles.htm - Creating topographic profile student_guide.pdf - Topography and contouring (a good homework assignment – also great for ROAD SCHOLAR) - also great for ROAD SCHOLAR ographic.cfm mpus/topo_profiles.htm student_guide.pdf

33 Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics is the geophysical theory in which the earth's crust is broken into huge plates that move about laterally and vertically. The interaction of lithospheric plates creates second order relief features of the earth, e.g. mountain chains, deep valleys. lithospheric plates

34 Plate Boundaries (1) Convergent, (2) Divergent and (3) Transform Begins with slide no. 17 (excellent site, must see!)

35 Plate Boundaries late%20boundaries.htm late%20boundaries.htm Cross sectional Model of a plate boundary

36 Features of Various Plate Boundaries

37 Should know what type of plate, why it is important, and what is occurring along the Ring of Fire

38 Evidence of Continental Drift (1) Fit of the Continents (2) Fossil Evidence (3) Rock Type and Structural Similarities (4) Paleoclimatic Evidence

39 (2) Fossil Evidence (1) Fit of the Continents

40 Evidence of Sea Floor Spreading Nice Videos (Sea Floor Spreading 1:11, Mid Atlantic Ridge :57) discoveries-sea-floor-spreading-video.htm A lot of videos other good stuff…just need to look around Bill Nye’s Sea Floor Spreading for the Discovery Channel discoveries-sea-floor-spreading-video.htm


42 Sea-floor spreading occurs where oceanic plates are diverging from one another. Magma rises along a rift zone and spreads out at the surface building new sea floor. As a result, the age of the rocks increases as one moves away from the rift zone. The mid- oceanic ridge is the primary site for sea-floor spreading. Earthquakes and volcanoes are where sea floor spreading is occurring.


44 Magnetic stripes record the magnetic polarization of iron- bearing rocks from a magnetometer. Deciphering magnetic stripes was one of the pieces of evidence to support the theory of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.sea floor spreadingplate tectonics


46 Tsunami Earthquakes, volcanoes and mudslides


48 contents.html contents.html Unbelievable Great Site for a lot more events!

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