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Incorporating Sources. QUOTING SOURCES o Quoting: repeating EXACTLY what another author or speaker writes or says o When quoting, you must use quotation.

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Presentation on theme: "Incorporating Sources. QUOTING SOURCES o Quoting: repeating EXACTLY what another author or speaker writes or says o When quoting, you must use quotation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Incorporating Sources

2 QUOTING SOURCES o Quoting: repeating EXACTLY what another author or speaker writes or says o When quoting, you must use quotation marks to indicate the author’s words o Paraphrasing: putting a short passage from another author or speaker into your own style o Paraphrasing should not alter the ideas of the original author or speaker o Summarizing: taking a long passage or whole document written by someone else and reduces it to main points in your own style o A summary is shorter than the original o A summary should not alter the ideas of the original

3 SIGNAL PHRASES o A signal phrase lets your reader know when you are about to use someone else’s ideas o Sample signal phrases: o In the words of author and activist Rick Bass, "… o As Flora Davis has noted, "… o The Gardners, experts in Colorado Plateau archaeology, point out that "… o Psychologist Sidney McMaynerberry offers an odd argument for this theory: "…

4 Signal phrases concedes contends illustrates reasons suggests asserts claims insists refutes acknowledges describes disputes responds admits argues writes denies implies comments adds notes compares confirms endorses points out states rejects maintains reports emphasizes observes shows agrees summarizes declares

5 QUOTATION AND CITATION o Whether you quote, paraphrase or summarize information, the citation goes in parentheses following the quotation or at the end of the sentence that ends your use of the source. o Examples o Melba explains, “For me, Cincinnati was the promised land” (Patillo 30), to contrast the race relations in Little Rock and Ohio. o At first lines such as “And in some perfumes is there more delight/Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks” (lines 7-8), seem unflattering. However, later it becomes clear that... o Fitzgerald gives Nick a muted tribute to the hero: "Gatsby turned out all right at the end" (176).

6 PUNCTUATING QUOTATIONS o Any letters or words changed to make the sentence fit your grammar should be put in brackets [ ]: o Lady Macbeth’s criticism of her husband “scornfully implies that [Macbeth’s] very sexuality will be called into question in her eyes” (Scott 265).

7 MLA BLOCK QUOTATION o Block indent quotations that are four lines of text o You may use a maximum of one block quotation in your research essay o Strike the tab key twice to indent one inch. o Lead into the quotation with a colon (:) and do not use quotation marks o The parenthetical citation follows the final period

8 Parenthetical Citations

9 AVOID PLAGIARISM o You must cite ALL SOURCES according to MLA guidelines. o If you consult a source “for ideas,” YOU MUST cite the source o For each parenthetical citation, you must have a corresponding Works Cited page entry. o For each Works Cited page entry, you must have a corresponding parenthetical citation

10 Parenthetical Citations—Author/Page  Write the author’s(s’) last name(s) and page number(s) in parentheses following the information from the source.  Example of In-text Citation:  His study of the nightclub scene took him to Seville “where the natives seem to be genetically indisposed to sleep” (Bryson 13).  Example of Works Cited:  Bryson, Bill. “The New World of Spain.” National Geographic Apr. 1992: Print.

11 Parenthetical Citations  If the author is identified in the sentence, give the page number(s) only.  Example of In-text Citation:  Bryson wittily remarked that in Seville “the natives seem to be genetically indisposed to sleep” (13).  Example of Works Cited:  Bryson, Bill. “The New World of Spain.” National Geographic Apr. 1992: Print.

12 Parenthetical Citations— No author  If there is no author, use the first significant word of the title of the book (italicized) or article (in quotations) and the page number.  Example of In-text Citation:  Annually, 3.2 tons of airborne pollutants drift over the U.S. border into Canada (“Even” 140).  Example of Works Cited:  “Even in Spring, Leaves Fall—Some Forever.” National Geographic Apr. 1992: 140. Print.

13 Parenthetical Citations— Indirect Sources  An Indirect Source is one source that is being quoted or paraphrased in another author’s work.)  Type qtd. in (quoted in) before the author of the indirect source and the page number if available.  Example of In-text Citation:  Benjamin Franklin, the author of Poor Richard's Almanack, remarked, "Observe all men; thyself the most" (qtd. in Pittman).  Example of Work Cited:  Pittman, Michael. Homepage. 11 Dec May Web.

14 Parenthetical Citations— No author or page numbers  If the electronic source has no author and no page numbers, use the complete title in a signal phrase or use the first significant word in the title in parentheses.  Example of a Title in a Signal Phrase:  According to “Poll: Rich Eye Space Tourism,” approximately 85 out of 450 wealthy Americans polled would be willing to pay $100,000 for a 15-minute space flight.  Example of a Shortened Title in Parentheses:  Approximately 85 out of 450 wealthy Americans polled would be willing to pay $100,000 for a 15-minute space flight (“Poll”).  Example of the Work Cited:  “Poll: Rich Eye Space Tourism.” The Learning Channel Discovery.com. 23 May Web.

15 CREATE A WORKS CITED PAGE o Use the MLA citation style guide to create a correctly formatted Works Cited page o Alphabetize your citations according to first letter, regardless of whether the first letter is a name or a title or something else o Double-space and use hanging indentation o Top center title of page: Works Cited o Proofread: Check your spelling of names and titles, and the location of your punctuation.

16 THINGS TO REMEMBER o Please use the MLA Citation Handouts that I gave you o Whether you quote, paraphrase or summarize, you MUST cite the ideas you get from your resources in your papers. o MLA style users should always use signal phrases to introduce quotations.


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