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April 25, 2015 American Psychological Association [APA] Citation Guide Based on the APA Manual 5 th Edition ISBN-13 :
April 25, 2015 Overview Paper Format: Paper Format Slides 4-9 In-Text Citations: In-Text Citations Slides References: References Slides 42-76
April 25, 2015 APA Websites American Psychological Association. (2003). APAstyle.org. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from The OWL at Purdue. (2007). APA formatting and style guide. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from Purdue University: The Writing Center. (2006). APA documentation. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from University of Wisconsin-Madison:
April 25, 2015 Formatting a Scholarly Paper Part 1
April 25, 2015 Format: Basics Font: Courier, Times New Roman, 12 point. 1 space after periods. Margins, 1.0” all around. Jagged right-edge text alignment: Do not justify. Left margin can be l.5 inches if instructor has requested the paper to be bound. Everything is double spaced, including quotes and reference page.
April 25, 2015 Format: Title Page Include author’s name (byline) and institutional affiliation. Author’s name should include full first name, middle initial, and last name. Affiliation identifies the location where the author, or authors, conducted the investigation. If there is no institutional affiliation, list the city and state of the author’s residency below the author’s name.
April 25, 2015 Format: Title Page Page numbers start with title page by setting header feature in your software. Header includes 2 or 3 words from title, then 5 spaces and page number. See example of a title page on in APA Manual, p. 306.
April 25, 2015 Format: Punctuation Series in a sentence To identify elements of a series within a paragraph use lowercase letters in parentheses, i.e., The participant's three choices were (a) working with another participant, (b) working with a team, and (c) working alone. (APA, 2001, p. 116)
April 25, 2015 Format: Numbers Use figures for numbers 10 and above (12 of the subjects); for numbers above and below 10 grouped for comparison (2 of 16 responses); for numbers representing time, dates, and age (3 years ago, 2 hr 15 min); for numbers denoting a specific place in a series, book, or table (Table 3, Group 3, page 32). Use words for numbers below 10 that do not represent precise measurements (eight items, nine pages); for numbers beginning a sentence, title, or heading (Forty-eight percent responded; Ten subjects improved, and 4 subjects did not.).
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations Part 2
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations 2 things to remember above all: If an entry appears in text, it must have a corresponding entry in the Reference list unless it is a “personal communication.” Similarly, if an item appears in the References, then it must be cited somewhere in text. Enough information must be given in text for the reader to locate the item on the Reference list without difficulty.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Why Use Sources? AARCTIC A uthority A ccountability R easonableness C redibility T rustworthiness I ntegrity C onfidence
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations AARCTIC Purpose: In-text citations give the author the AARCTIC without the frostbite of plagiarism. Consequently, any borrowed information, whether quoted directly, summarized, or paraphrased must exhibit a clear indication of its origin.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations Include as much of the following information in a citation within the body of a paper as possible: Author. Absence of an author allows the use of a truncated version of the source document’s Title. Copyright Year. Location within the source document (e.g. page, paragraph, or section number, etc.). Summaries and paraphrases do not necessarily require the location element, but it is not wrong to include it. Standard citation: (Author’s last name, Year, p. #).
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Authors General Rules: An author mentioned within the body of a sentence can include a first name, if desired. Only surnames are represented in a parenthetical citation. If two or more authors share the surname, then use first and middle initials to differentiate them. Examples: Sentence body: A. B. Smith (2004) contradicted C. D. Smith (2006) when she said… Parenthetical: (Smith, A. B., 2004) (Smith, C. D., 2006). Note: inverted name order and the space between the initials.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Authors 1-2 authors. Always use the surnames of both authors throughout the paper. Always cite them in the order they appear on the source material. Multiple author punctuation. Authors of a source mentioned within a sentence use the word “and.” Authors represented in the parenthetical use the ampersand (&) (APA, 2001, pp ).
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Authors 3-5 authors. Cite all authors the first time a reference occurs within an entire paper; subsequent citations require only the surname of the first author followed by et al. Note: there is no period following the “et” but there is a period after the “al.”
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Authors 6 or more authors. Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. Note: there is no period following the “et” but there is a period after the “al.” No author Use a few words of the item’s title or the entire title if it is short in place of the author. Do not use quotation marks around the title identifier.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Authors Groups as authors. Corporations, associations, government agencies, study groups, etc. Usually spelled out each time they are used in-text. Remember: The key is to be absolutely sure that the reader can match an in-text citation to its entry in the reference list.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Authors Groups as authors, continued. Familiar or readily-understandable acronyms and abbreviations can be used in the second and subsequent citations, but it must be established as follows: 1 st text citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999). Note: the use of brackets avoids nested parentheses (APA, 2001, p. 85). The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) was founded… Note: the use of parentheses to establish the acronym when not nested within a set of parentheses (APA, 2001, p. 84). Subsequent citations: (NIMH, 1999).
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citation: Authors Anonymous vs. Unknown: Authors are only ever referred to as anonymous when they have chosen to be so. In-text citation will list the author in the parenthetical as Anonymous. Reference list will list the author as Anonymous. An author is unknown when there is no identifying information at all. In-text citation will replace the author designation with one or two words from the title of the work. Reference list will promote the title of the work to the location of the author.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citation: Dates Placement of the date in a citation is always directly linked to the mention of the author. If the author’s name appears in the signal phrase, follow it immediately by a parenthetical representation of the date.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citation: Dates 4-digit year is standard. Add alphabetical designation for works by the same author published in the same year. Ex: (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c). n.d. for no date. This is only acceptable if no date is represented anywhere on a work, website, etc. Use periods after the n and the d, and do not put a space between the two.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citation: Page Numbers Provide a location reference (e.g. page numbers, or “part” references) for all quotations. There is a space between the location reference designation and its number or title. Notations & Abbreviations: Page: p. Chapter: chap. Paragraph: para. or ¶
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Examples (Cheek & Hoa, 1981, p. 332)* (Sadler, Fine, & Grace, 1999) (Jones, 1989, chap. 3) (Myers, 2000, ¶ 5) (Bow, 2000, para. 1) * Note: there is no comma between the first author and the ampersand when there are only two authors in the citation.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Personal Communication Includes anything from letters, memos, , telephone conversations, personal interviews, etc. Because it is non-retrievable data, personal communications do not appear in the Reference list. They appear in-text only. Note: Personal communications can be called into question for validity and credibility. Use it sparingly.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Personal Communication Provide the initials, the surname, and provide as exact a date as possible. J. Burnitz (personal communication, September 20, 2007) indicated … A recent interview (J. Burnitz, personal communication, September 20, 2007) revealed the reluctance …
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Capitalization Applies to Titles and Headings. Capitalize major words. Conjunctions, articles, and prepositions are not considered major. Capitalize all words of four letters or more. Capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound. Capitalize the first word after a colon or dash. (APA, 2001, p. 95).
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Quotes Definition: A precise, word-for-word, punctuation-for-punctuation, error-for-error reproduction of source material for use in one’s own work.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Quotes – Signal Phrases (It’s only POLITE!) Signal Phrases (It’s only POLITE!) Signal phrases introduce the quote, or provide information relevant to the citation that can then be omitted from the parenthetical insertion. Though the placement and appearance may differ, ALWAYS use a signal phrase to signal a reader about information borrowed from a source. Think of it as no quote bombing, or dropping of self- contained, unannounced quotations.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Signal Phrases Signal phrases may require an in-text citation to be broken apart (APA, 2001, pp ). Standard citation: (Author’s last name, Year, p. #). Author in signal phrase: Schwartz (2003) contends, “…” (p. 3). Research (Cummings, 2002) suggests that “…” (chap. 2), but there are still conclusions yet to be reached. Note: a comma is not needed before a quote when a quotation falls seamlessly into the flow of the sentence.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Short Quotes Short quotes with fewer than 40 words are incorporated into text and enclosed by double quotation marks. Parenthetical citations appear after the end quotation marks, but before the final punctuation, such as a period or a comma. Citation information not contained within a signal phrase immediately follows the quote after the end double quotation marks, no matter where it appears in the sentence.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Block Quote Used for 40 words or more (APA, 2001, pp. 117, 292). Indent the entire quotation one tab, or the same as an indentation at the beginning of a regular paragraph. If the block quote incorporates more than one paragraph, indent the first line an additional tab, or 5 spaces. Omit enclosing quotation marks.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Block Quote Punctuation. Introduce with a colon. Parenthetical citation appears after the final punctuation mark within the block quote.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citation: Block Quote Miele (1993) found the following: The “placebo effect,” which had been verified in previous studies disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. The behaviors were not exhibited again even when real drugs were given. (p. 40) Note: the use of double quotes within the block quote is permissible, and the comma appears within the double quotation marks.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Quotes Altering the appearance of quotations is permissible with the appropriate notation. Errors in the Original text. Because quotations must be an exact duplication of original material, sometimes it is necessary to indicate the legitimacy of the reproduction, such as a special spelling or an error that appears in the original. Insert [sic] immediately after the error appears within the quote.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Quotes Omission : For an omission of a word or words, use the ellipses (...), not 3 periods in a row. If the omission appears in the middle of a sentence, use only the three period ellipses. If the omission appears at the end of a sentence in the quote, use a four-period ellipses to indicate that the final point is the end of the sentence. Do NOT use ellipses at the very beginning or at the very end of a quotation.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Quotes Inserting material Use brackets, not parentheses, to enclose inserted material, such as additions or explanations. Adding Emphasis If you want to emphasize a word or words anywhere in an APA paper, italicize them. Do not put them in quotations marks or use a bold font. Within a quote, insert [italics added] immediately after the italicized words.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Quotes Alterations to quotations that do not require a notation: Making the first letter of the first word in a quotation uppercase or lower case depending on the context. Change ending punctuation to fit the syntax.
April 25, 2015 In-Text Citations: Summaries and Paraphrases Borrowed information that is not reproduced verbatim must be changed significantly in structure when used in-text. It must still be cited using the rules previously mentioned, though a location reference (i.e. page or chapter number) is not mandatory. Signal phrases are not mandatory for all paraphrases and summaries, but it is still wise to use them.
April 25, 2015 Tables vs. Figures Tables typically display exact values or comparisons and figures display qualitative data like pictures, graphs and drawings. They are labeled differently. Table labels (APA, 2001, p. 149) are displayed above the table and labels for the figures (APA, 2001, p. 184) are displayed below the figure. In-Text Citations: Visuals
April 25, 2015 References Part 3
April 25, 2015 References Purpose: AARCTIC References are the map to the AARCTIC. References provide readers the path to directly access any and all source materials used within a document. Bear in mind: Knowing the basics and finding the patterns behind APA citations will make it easier to cope with all of the “exceptions.”
April 25, 2015 References: Must-Haves Elements represented in Reference entries in order of importance: Author Editor Copyright date Title of work directly ascribed to the author Edition Title of “harboring” entity (e.g. magazine, journal name, newspaper, website, etc.) Publication information Publisher information Volume and issue numbers Retrieval address or location (e.g. website address or housing database)
April 25, 2015 References: Must-Haves Because of the unique ability for electronic sources to update rapidly, they require a date of last access, or date of retrieval (APA, 2001, p. 231).
April 25, 2015 References: Cardinal Rule Cardinal Rule Remember the Cardinal Rule: References cited in text must appear in the reference list; conversely, each entry in the reference list must be cited in text (APA, 2001, p. 215).
April 25, 2015 References: Format Begin the reference list on a new page (APA, 2001, p. 299). Using “References” as the title or “Reference” if there is only a single source: Title is center aligned. If the references take up more than one page, do not re-type References on sequential pages, simply continue the list. For each entry, use a hanging indent: The first line is flush left with remaining lines of the reference indented 5 spaces. Alphabetize entries by author’s last name. Double space. Use one space after all punctuation.
April 25, 2015 References Elkind, D. (1978). The child's reality: Three developmental themes. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Issac, G. (1995). Is solar disorder timed? Adolescents, 30 (118),
April 25, 2015 References: Authors Single Author. Use only a complete surname and the first and middle initials of any author. Surname appears first followed by a comma. First initial – period – space – middle initial – period – space. Multiple Authors. Invert the order of the surnames and the initials of all authors. Separate authors from one another with a comma. Use an ampersand (&) before the last author.
April 25, 2015 References: Authors Editor with no author. Place and represent the editor’s name as if it were the author. Immediately follow the name with (Ed.). for a single editor and (Eds.). when there is more than one editor. Note: the E is capitalized, there is a period after the abbreviation and a period after the closing parentheses. No author or editor: Promote the title of the piece to main importance. Alphabetize by the first word of the title that is not an article (e.g. the, a, an). Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10 th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
April 25, 2015 References: Authors Same Author Variables Same author, same year Apply an alphabetized designation immediately after the year. Use this identifier in-text, as well. Arrange alphabetically by title References Jones, J. R. (2001a). Control…. Jones, J. R. (2001b). Roles of ….
April 25, 2015 References: Authors Same Author Variables Same Authors, Different Year of Publication: list oldest or birth order publication first. Jones, J. R., & Wright, K. (2000). Jones, J. R., & Wright, K. (2001).
April 25, 2015 References: Publication Dates Give (in parentheses) the year the work was published immediately after the author information. A period belongs after the end parentheses. Standard. (1995). Monthly items. (1995, January). Note: all months must be completely spelled out. Do not truncate.
April 25, 2015 References: Publication Dates Daily and weekly items. (1995, June 5). Any work accepted for publication, but not yet printed. (in press). Work with no available date. (n.d.).
April 25, 2015 References: Titles Capitalization Capitalize only the first word, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns in titles of books and articles Agony and you: How to survive really long, dry presentations. Do not capitalize the second word of a hyphenated compound. (APA, 2001, p. 95)
April 25, 2015 References: Titles Do not use quotation marks or underlining as title designators. Use italics for titles of books, newspapers, magazines, and journals. Note: For articles in periodicals, the rules of capitalization and italicizing are split between the title of the article and the title of the periodical: Use special capitalization rules for the actual article, but do not italicize. Italicize the name of the periodical, but use the standard Heading capitalization rules.
April 25, 2015 References: Titles Title components within a reference listing require ending punctuation. Use a period unless there is a specific ending punctuation in the title. Example: Aren’t they just so tricky about their rules? Journal of annoying citation standards and all of their exceptions.
April 25, 2015 References: Titles Edition. Edition information appears in parentheses immediately following the title before the period. Use the designation of ed. with a lower-case e and a period. Picky, picky (375th ed.).
April 25, 2015 References: Publication Information Books City of publication – comma – space – state abbreviation – colon – space – name of publisher – period. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Note: When a city that is well-known for publishing can be readily linked to its state, the state abbreviation is not necessary (e.g. Boston, San Francisco, New York, etc.) For a complete list of exceptions, see p. 217 of the APA manual.
April 25, 2015 References: Publication Information Periodicals (e.g. Magazines, Newspapers, etc.) Immediately following the title of the periodical, provide a volume number. Include the issue number for journals if, and only if, each issue begins on page 1. Include range of page numbers for a citation of a specific article within the periodical.
April 25, 2015 References: Publication Information Periodical title (italicized) – comma – space – volume number (italicized) – open parentheses – issue number – close parentheses – comma – space – page range – period. Note: do not include any designations or abbreviations, such as vol. for volume number or p. or pp. for page numbers. Borman, W. C. (2001). Role of supervisor. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(2),
April 25, 2015 References: Publication Information Electronic Sources Electronic publication information comes in the form of a path. In other words “follow this” or “go here” and you will find the source. Website: the “path” is in the form of a URL, or web address. Note: Do not insert a terminating punctuation mark, or period, after a web address. Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines. Break only after a slash or a period. Database: the “path” is the mention of the exact database.
April 25, 2015 References: Publication Information – Websites Electronic Sources Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited – whenever possible, reference specific documents rather than home or menu pages. Reasons why it may not be possible to direct the reader to the precise document: The URL is too long The parent website or organization archives its articles after a period of time The item exists behind a firewall
April 25, 2015 References: Publication Information – Websites Electronic Sources In such cases, direct the reader to the URL, usually a parent website or the search site housing the document, that provides information on how to obtain the cited material. Replace the requisite “Retrieved” with “Available from” and the name of the website. Do not hyperlink the website. Place a comma after the title of the site and insert the url. Example: Available from National Technical Information Service Web site,
April 25, 2015 References: Last Access Web sites and database citation have a special component that depends on the last date where the researcher knows a source was available. Note: if an address or path no longer works or is invalid, the source should be replaced and all citations updated. Last access date appears at the end of a citation, but before the path.
April 25, 2015 References: Last Access Introduce the date with the word “Retrieved” Date format: Month Day, 4-digit year, Do not abbreviate the month There is a comma after the day and one after the year Follow the date with the word “from” Do not place any punctuation between the “from” and the path.
April 25, 2015 References: Last Access Jones, G. (2001). Role of reference elements. Retrieved October 13, 2001, from
April 25, 2015 Examples
April 25, 2015 Examples: Electronic Source Retrieved from University Program or Department Site Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: Reason: If a document is contained within a large complex Web site, identify the host organization and the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document (APA, 2001, p 274).
April 25, 2015 Examples: Internet Article Based on a Print Source (Exact Duplication) Correct: VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, Incorrect: VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5,
April 25, 2015 Correct: VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, Retrieved October 13, 2001, from Incorrect: VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, Examples: Internet Article Based on a Print Source (Modified Content)
April 25, 2015 Examples: Database Correct: Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience. American Psychologist, 50, Retrieved January 12, 2001, from PsycARTICLES database. Incorrect: Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience. American Psychologist, 50,
April 25, 2015 Examples: Document Deposit Service Correct: Fuss-Reineck, M. (1993). Sibling communication in Star Trek: The Next Generation: Conflicts between brothers. Miami, FL: Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED ) Incorrect: Fuss-Reineck, M. (1993). Sibling communication in Star Trek: The Next Generation: Conflicts between brothers. Miami, FL: Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association. Reason: This is a report available from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) in print, on microfiche, or other non-web-based source. Give the ERIC ID in parentheses at the end of the entry. Do not use a period after the document number (APA, 2001, pp ).
April 25, 2015 Examples: Article on Web site Correct: Henry, E. (n.d.) Rice confirmed as secretary of state: Ex-national security adviser first black female to hold office. Retrieved January 26, 2005, from html There is no terminating punctuation, or period, after a website. Incorrect: Henry, E. Rice confirmed as secretary of state: Ex-national security adviser first black female to hold office. (n.d.) Retrieved January 26, 2005, from html.
April 25, 2015 Examples: Personal Communication Correct: J. Burkow (personal communication, September 3, 2002) said… Or (J. Burkow, personal communication, September 3, 2002) Incorrect: Burkow, J. (2002, September 3). Personal communication.
April 25, 2015 For Further Examples See the APA Manual, Chapter 4, for detailed examples related to Periodicals, Books, brochures, and book chapters, Technical and research reports, Proceedings of meetings and symposia, Doctoral dissertations and master’s theses, Unpublished work and publications of limited circulation, Reviews, Audiovisual media, and Electronic media
April 25, 2015 References American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5 th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychological Association. (2003). APAstyle.org. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from Cornell University Library. (2005). APA citation style. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from Cornell University: Hacker, D. (2006). APA research paper [Electronic version]. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from
April 25, 2015 Hacker, D. (2007a). A writer’s reference (6th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s. Hacker, D. (2007b). A writer’s reference (6 th ed.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from The OWL at Purdue. (2007). APA formatting and style guide. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from Purdue University: University of Maryland University College. (2004). Tutorials. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from
April 25, 2015 The Writing Center. (2006). APA documentation. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from University of Wisconsin-Madison: Writing Tutorial Services. (2004). Citing sources in APA style. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from Indiana University: