Presentation on theme: "Code Switching and Code Mixing by Spanish Heritage Speakers in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) By Maria Paternain."— Presentation transcript:
Code Switching and Code Mixing by Spanish Heritage Speakers in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) By Maria Paternain
Background 34.5 millions speakers of Spanish in the United States( 2007 census). 40% are foreign-born and 60 % are born in the USA. Code switching is common in bilingual communities since it is considered a sign of identity and belonging to the Latino community without giving up one language for the other (Zentella, 1997, p.114)
Important concepts Spanish Heritage speaker: A student who is raised in a home where a non-English language is spoken, who speaks or at least understands the language, and who is to some degree bilingual in that language and in English (Valdes, 2001). Functional bilinguals They often do not develop age-appropriate levels of literacy, vocabulary, and grammatical systems in Spanish.
Code Switching Code switching or inter-sentential code-alternation occurs when a bilingual speaker uses more than one language in a single utterance above the clause level to appropriately convey his/her intents” (Cardenas and Isharyanti, 2009, p.68). H: Can you see me now? A: It is just... it is the loading sign… Can you see me? H: Bueno, ahorita yo no te puedo ver (Well, now I can’t see you).
Code Mixing Code mixing or intra-sentential code switching or intra-sentential code-alternation, occurs when speakers use two or more languages below clause level within one social situation” (Cardenas and Isharyanti, 2009, p.68) Insertion Alternation Congruent Lexicalization
Insertion J: Pues como dijo la otra, primero vamos a ir a Buckhead donde vive Javier. A que horas llega el Megabus? (As the other one said, first we go to Buckhead where Javier lives. When does the Megabus arrive?
Alternation H: ¿Qué vas a llevar? Chris, ¿Sabes lo que lleva ella? I don’t know what to take. (What are you going to take? Chris, do you know what she is taking? I don’t know what to take)
Congruent Lexicalization H: Cleveland block party era weird porque era en Halloween… es cuando sale la weird people, (Cleveland block party was weird because it was in Halloween… it is when weird people go out)
Rationale This study will help to: Understand current linguistic practices of Spanish heritage speakers in CMC. Identify the functions that code switching and code mixing play in CMC. Recognize the code mixing patterns that Spanish heritage speakers use in CMC. Discover the impact of the use of different modes of communication in CMC.
Research Questions Do participants use the same language as the other participant even when he or she has code-switched in the previous turn? What functions of the language seem to switch the most? What is the most frequent code mixing category in which participants mix languages? Does the mode of interaction have an effect on code switching?
Research Methods Interactions take place via Skype (Synchronous) Videoconference Written chat Topic: The weekend/random Language: Spanish and English Data collection: Skype Audio – tape
Data Analysis Transcription of data word by word (30 min). Identification of instances of code switching and code mixing: Patterns: Insertion, alternation, and congruent lexicalization. Participant 1-initiated switching not followed by participant 2. Participant 1-initiated switching followed by participant 2. Functions.
Participants The sample selection criteria for the study are as follows: (1) College student (2) Resident in the United States (3) Spanish heritage (4) Bilingual in English and Spanish (5) Use of “Spanglish” when talking to other Hispanic heritage individuals.
Participant Sample ParticipantHeritageAgeCurrent MajorGeneration in USA English Proficiency Spanish Proficiency AdrianaMexican21Biology/ Pre- dentistry 1stFluentNative HelenaMexican21Biochemistry2ndNativeFunctional Spanish speaker JaneMexican21Biochemistry2ndNativeFunctional Spanish Speaker
Findings 1.Do participants use the same language as the other participant even when he or she has code switched in the previous turn? Via videoconference: 73 times Followed by participant 52: (71%) Not followed by participant: 21 (29%) Via written chat: 25 times Followed by participant: 16 (64%) Not followed by participant: 9 (36%)
Example of participant-initiated code switching followed by the other participant A: Pues ay! Helena yo no he hecho, no… siempre tengo tarea (So, ay! Helena, I haven’t done, no… I always have homework) H: Adriana, you turn 21 in 4 hours A: I know. Example of participant-initiated code switching not followed by the other participant A: En mayo, el verano (In May, the summer) H: Are you doing like a study abroad? A: aha! Otra vez (aha! Again!)
2. What functions of the language seem to switch the most? General Functions of Code Switching and Code Mixing Insecurity about the use of a word – fear to failure - Comfortability Not enough time to think – Keep flow of the conversation Identity as a bilingual speaker
Videconference: Confirmation (18) A: Si Jane? Tienes novio francés? (, Really, Jane? Do you have a French boyfriend?) J: Yeah To index consent or dissent, agreement and conflict, alignment and distancing, and so on (4) A: Es un estado, Puebla, la capital es Toluca (It is a state, Puebla, the capital is Toluca). H: Oh ok, that’s cool
To respond to language choices by preceding contributions (52) H: ¿Qué es? ¿ Una camisa? (What is that? A shirt?) A: Have you guys ever had this? H: Oh my God! Don’t take that! It is bad for you! To express something that has not equivalent in the culture of other languages or when the translations do not make sense in the particular context (46) A: and I’ am also taking el lab for Molecular Cell Bio, Molecular Cell biology,, y Thesiology. Y ustedes? (and you?) To express surprise (6) A: Oh! Es mañana! (Oh! it is tomorrow!) J: Oh my God! ¿Tu cumple es mañana? (Oh my god! Is your birthday tomorrow?
Written chat: Confirmation (10) H: Mmm… pues we kind of have to (So we kind of have to) J: Está bien (It is ok) To respond to language choices by preceding contributions (16) H: ¿Cuánto cuesta? (How much is it) J: Dijo que the vortex is located in midtown y little five guys (He said that the vortex is located in midtown and little five guys) H: Yeah I know To express something that has not equivalent in the culture of other languages or when the translations do not make sense in the particular context (44) J: Entonces we take an east west bus […] (So… we take an east west bus)
3. What is the most frequent code mixing category in which participants mix languages? Via videoconference: Alternation: 58 (51%) Insertion: 47 (40%) Congruent Lexicalization: 10 (8%) Via written chat: Insertion: 48 (51%) Alternation: 30 (32%) Congruent Lexicalization: 16 (17%)
4. Does the mode of interaction have an effect on code switching? Videoconference: – 3359 words – Participants tend to follow other participant’s code switch (71%) – Functions: Comfort, identity, follow other participant’s choice, express a concept that has not an equivalent in another language, confirmation, to index agreement and conflicts, to express surprise. – Alternation (51%) Written chat: – 1717 words – Participants tend to follow other participant’s code switch (64%) – Functions: Comfort, identity, follow other participant’s choice, express a concept that has not an equivalent in another language, confirmation. – Insertion (51%)
Implications and Discussions IMPACT ON CODE SWITCHING – Difference on the number of exchanges between oral and written mode – Mode: Written chat Insertion Vs Videoconference Alternation Inserting a word from one language to another requires minimal competence at a lexical level, whereas for alternation and congruent lexicalization individuals need to fully master the language at grammatical and semantic levels. Written chat: Features of spoken languages (short sentences, grammatical incorrect sentences, individual words used in response to complete utterances, among others), the possibility for alternations and congruent lexicalization can be limited. – Topic influence on code switching: Academics/ weekend planning. – Context – Life in USA.
Conclusions Code switching and code mixing are current linguistic practices among Spanish heritage speakers in synchronous CMC. Code switching and code mixing are symbols of identity and belonging to a bilingual community. The numerous instances of code switching might have an impact on Spanish heritage speakers’ acquisition of Spanish.