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Dennis P. Rosenbaum, Director Center for Research in Law and Justice University of Illinois at Chicago National Institute of Justice April 21, 2014 Portions.

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Presentation on theme: "Dennis P. Rosenbaum, Director Center for Research in Law and Justice University of Illinois at Chicago National Institute of Justice April 21, 2014 Portions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dennis P. Rosenbaum, Director Center for Research in Law and Justice University of Illinois at Chicago National Institute of Justice April 21, 2014 Portions of the research described here were supported by grant No. 2008-DN-BX-0005 awarded by the National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this presentation are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Justice.

2  Big picture view of legitimacy in policing from leadership perspective  External legitimacy issues  Internal legitimacy issues  National Police Research Platform as a tool for understanding and reforming

3  Inside: Budget cuts, changing workforce, new crime threats, new technologies  Outside: Negative encounters, image management with stakeholders  Pressure to innovate, pressure to reform, pressure to be transparent/accountable  Need better “knowledge management” and “information management”

4 Science, Information, Knowledge Policing Policies, Practices

5  What type of knowledge is needed, but sorely lacking?  Wake up call: Policing is no longer just about crime control  Policing in 21st century multi-ethnic society is largely about legitimacy and fairness in service delivery and leadership  Effective crime fighting requires a healthy organization 5

6  Beyond numeric outcomes to policing processes:  External processes – Officer decisions and interactions with community members (Procedural Justice)  Internal processes – Management decisions and interactions with employees (Organizational Justice)

7  Provide standardized diagnostic tools and benchmarks for evidence-based decision making and self-assessment  Advance knowledge of organizational behavior via cross-agency comparisons  Encourage a paradigm shift: from bean counting to evidence-based management/organizational health  Measuring what matters to the employees and the public – and what affects organizational legitimacy

8  Internal Quality of Policing: How are employees treated? (Organizational justice)  External Quality of Policing: How is the public treated? (Procedural justice and more)

9 “A psychological property of an authority, institution, or social arrangement that leads those connected to it to believe that it is appropriate, proper, and just.” (Tyler, 2006, p. 375).

10  Police authority is not defined entirely by the badge, gun, and arrest powers  Police action must be authorized by the consent of the governed  Legitimacy is not an immutable characteristic of the police --It can be conferred and removed over time  It is defined in the hearts and minds of those being asked to follow

11  Corruption, scandals, and reform attempts  Causing/mishandling civil disorder  Excessive force  Race discrimination and profiling  History of poor relations with various communities (minorities, youth, mentally ill, LGBT)

12  Less willing to cooperate (e.g. "no snitch culture”)  Less willing to comply with requests  Less willing to obey the law  More likely to file complaints, lawsuits, and generate negative media coverage

13  Respect: Treat people with respect/dignity  Neutrality: Treat people objectively, based on the facts, not personal characteristics  Voice: Listen to people - pay attention  Concern: Show concern for their welfare.... 13

14  Victimization can be traumatic:  Show sensitivity to victim’s experience – empathy, compassion, emotional support  Show competence – answering questions, explaining actions, following procedures, making decisions

15 Follows Procedural Justice Principles Addresses the Needs of Victims Officer’s Actions Officer is Fair Officer Listene d to me I’m Satisfied with Encounter Officer is Respectful Citizen’s Perceptions Officer cares about my Wellbeing I trust this Officer I trust the Dept. Increase Compliance with Requests Increase Officer Safety Expected Outcomes Increase Investigative Information Reduce Citizen Complaints Increase Job Satisfaction

16  Measure what is important to the community – the quality of service  If you measure something, it begins to matter. Otherwise, who cares?  Use the National Police Research Platform as a starting point and paradigm shift…

17 Problems with Existing Data  Police management has weak data to judge the quality police-citizen contacts (citizen complaints? Police surveys?)  Community surveys don’t tell us about recent police services  Contact surveys (Bureau of Justice Statistics) provide only national estimates

18  Provides local, jurisdictional data for police management purposes (Advancing practice with feedback and “reactive measurement”)  Provides local, regional and national standardized data for research purposes (Advancing science by providing contextual data for explanation)  Added benefit: Democratizes policing by giving the public a voice in evaluating police services  Measures the desired behaviors that matter

19 What does the PCI Survey Measure?  Overall satisfaction with the encounter  Procedural justice – Quality of treatment and decision making  Victim-focused measures: Empathy and emotional support, concern, explain, provide information  Agency legitimacy – trust and confidence  Agency performance overall – effective and responsive to problems, concerns  Intentions to cooperate, comply, obey the law

20 Survey Methodology  Letter from Chief/Sheriff mailed to citizens with police contact in the past 10 days  Letter Invites Citizens to Complete Satisfaction Survey by:  Web-based survey or  1-800 automated telephone survey  University collects data independently and provides feedback to the participating departments

21 “How satisfied are you with the way you were treated by the officer in this case?” 83.2%

22  Predictable differences in satisfaction by:  Racial/ethnic group  Age  Type of incident (police-initiated or not)  Agency

23 Response Rate Letter A- Telephone Interview 34.41% Letter B- PCI Electronic Surveys 11.10%

24 Satisfaction Mean Scores by Mode Electr onic Telephone Interview Significance Overall2.722.67 t(373) =.66, p =.51 Gender (female) 2.63 Interaction B =.052, p =.534 Race (minority) 2.712.57 Interaction B = 0.97, p =.163 Age (over 40) 2.732.75 Interaction B =.058, p =.371

25  Feasible – It can be done  Cost effective - $5 vs. $82 per survey  Acceptable validity of responses  Attractive to local agencies -feedback  Provides external indicators of organizational and officer performance  Provides database for advancing knowledge about factors that contribute to procedural justice in diverse settings

26  Roll out with national sample of agencies in Phase 2 of the Platform  Explore differences between agencies  Test the potential utility for police management

27 (% Very Satisfied and Somewhat Satisfied) Agency

28  “Respectstat”  Comparisons by District or Area  Mapping “Hot spots”  District trends over Time  Hourly Trends  Institutionalization



31  Survey is in the field – ongoing data collection  Expect between 50 and 75 agencies to participate (out of 83)  100 to 500 surveys per agency  Today – Quick peak at data from 43 agencies

32 All Small (100 to 199) Medium (200 to 599) Large (600 to 999) Very Large (over 1,000) #Agencies43191167 #Resp.10,8211,5411,8323,3234,125

33 Females46% White63% Age Mean49% Resident72% Traffic Stops41% Traffic Accidents22% Crime Incidents35%






39 “During the encounter, the officer…”  listened to what I had to say.  seemed concerned about my feelings.  seemed to believe what I was saying.  comforted and reassured me.




43 No Yes

44 StepVariableBeta1Beta2Beta3 1Percent minority-.123-.106-.020 Percent poverty.329-.030.032 Rate of violence-.335-.128-.029 2Agency sizexxx-.949-.024 % Contacts with citations xxx 7.30***.035 3Procedural justicexxx.980*** R-squared.290.833.964


46  Procedural justice is a strong predictor of citizen satisfaction with police contacts, controlling for agency size, community characteristics and decision making outcomes (traffic citations).  For the PCI Survey, more work is needed to reduce costs, improve response rates, and test alternative survey modalities  Relative to the history of the Uniform Crime Report (UCR), we are living in 1929. National and local politics and competing research agendas stand in the way, but can be overcome!

47  Strategies for Change – What works?  Employee commitment to organizational goals is essential  Where employees are satisfied with work, they are more committed to the organization’s goals…


49  Cynical about the administration, about the public, and resistant to change  Similar to the community, we argue that officers are concerned with justice, especially inside the agency where they work:  Want to be treated fairly and respectfully  Want input into decision making  Want to trust that management will make good decisions that are fair and equitable…

50 Agency Size (Sworn)


52 “The perception held by employees that they are being treated fairly, respectfully, and compassionately by those in authority positions; that they have some input and control over decision making in their work environment; that they are kept informed of, and given explanations for, the decisions that affect their lives; and that they have opportunities for professional growth and job enrichment.”

53 Dimensions of Organizational Justice Rotated Component Matrix 1 Overall 2 Superv. 3 Leader 4 Race/ Gender Q12_3R.761 Q12_2R.736 Q12_1R.717 Q13_8R.641 Q16_6R.640 Q15_13R.610 Q16_15R.594 Q15_14R.566 Q12_4R.518 Q10_9R.889 Q10_10R.847 Q10_8R.846 Q9_4R.823 Q5_2R.836 Q5_1R.827 Q5_3R.820 Q6_2R.682 Q14_11R.867 Q14_10R.856

54  Just Organization (9 items, alpha=.869) =Fair discipline, fair assignments, fair opportunities, fair accountability for actions, and respectful treatment  Just Leadership (4 items, alpha=.902) =Head of agency sets clear expectations, encourages input, sets a good example, and inspires employees

55  Just Supervision (4 items, alpha=.895) =Supervisor sets clear expectations, encourages input, is fair and consistent in decisions, and stands up for employees  Just Treatment of Women/Minorities (2 items, alpha=.866) = Employees are treated the same regardless of gender [regardless of race]

56 Just organization.45* Just leader.46* Just supervisor.24* Just environment for women and minorities.38* * p <.05

57 Model R-squared =.294 F (12, 11685) = 405.67 p <.0001 Unstd. Coeff Std. Coeff tSig. b Std. Error Beta (Constant) 2.171.037 58.675.000 Just Leader.136.006.25123.768.000 Just Organization.178.011.18315.927.000 Just Supervisor.025.005.0414.780.000 Just for Women and Minorities.108.006.16817.964.000 Supervisor.106.011.08610.134.000 Age -.002.001-.036-4.322.000 Gender.032.013.0192.433.015 College Graduate -.023.010-.019-2.293.022 Some Graduate Classes.044.014.0273.181.001 Black; African American.088.017.0425.252.000 Latino/Hispanic.094.017.0435.527.000

58  Concentrated disadvantage in community  Rate of index crime in community (avg. of 2011 & 2012)  Agency type (Sheriffs vs. PDs)  Total number of sworn officers in agency

59 Unstd. CoefftSig. b Std. Error Level-1 (individual) Just Leader.135.00718.191.000 Just Organization.179.01412.131.000 Just Supervisor.025.0073.807.000 Just for Women and Minorities.113.00813.532.000 Supervisor.100.0118.782.000 Age -.002.001-3.823.000 Gender.028.0122.284.022 Some Graduate Classes.062.0183.374.000 Black; African American.057.0163.617.000 Latino/Hispanic.086.0184.871.000 Level-2 (Organization) Concentrated Disadvantage.012.0062.135.036 Index Crime (2011 & 2012) <-.001<.001-0.408.684 Agency Type (Sheriffs Office).060.0232.554.012 Total Sworn Officers <-.001<.001-0.444.659 Constant 3.38.015217.136.000

60  Legitimacy inside the organization is driven by organizational justice considerations  Employees feel obligated to obey and support administrators whom they view as legitimate authorities  Managers can achieve legitimacy by interacting in just ways: engaging employees, valuing their ideas, protecting them, treating them fairly and respectfully, and giving them opportunities for advancement

61 “You can catch more flies with honey than with vinegar” “Treat people the way you want to be treated”

62  Work with law enforcement community to address new information needs  Continue panel of agencies – periodic data collection  Expand nonrandom sample of agencies  Develop translational interventions and randomized trials


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