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1 Lecture 3: Political Development and the State.

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1 1 Lecture 3: Political Development and the State

2 2 A. Key Subjects 1. Marx and Political Development: How are political systems established? How do they develop and change? 2. Modernization and Social Mobilization a. Weber b. Deutsch 3. Huntington's FIVE Goals and Political Decay 4. State Building a. Origins of the State b. Social Class and Regime Types c. Old Regimes and New States 5. State Strength, Capacity, and Legitimacy

3 3 B. Karl Marx and Political Development 1. First sophisticated theory of political development 2. Breakdown and transformation of societies based on conflict generated by social classes over ownership and control of means of production (equipment that created the material world). 3. Conflict between each society's tools of production (means of production) and the class relations for controlling or owning that equipment led to class revolutions, as new social classes emerged to challenge the ruling class.

4 4 B. Karl Marx and Political Development (continued) 4. Stages of development: a. primitive communism b. slavery c. feudalism d. capitalism e. socialism f. communism 5. Marx placed class and conflict among social classes at the centre of social science explanations for large scale social and political change.

5 5 C. Modernization and Social Mobilization 1. Max Weber *A major challenge to Marxism *difference among societies is level of "modernization" and nature of "authority relations", not classes or class struggle *modernization result of specialization, professionalization, secularization, bureaucratization and efficiency *ideal society was capitalist society, with efficient bureaucracy, “legal-rational authority relations,” supportive of democracy *society moved from "traditional" to "charismatic," to modern "legal-rational” authority relations

6 6 C. Modernization and Social Mobilization (continued) * Weber's vocabulary major part of language of social science modernization theory, with split (dichotomy) between modern and traditional society. *all societies contain both “modern” and “traditional” components or qualities and can be placed on a continuum running from “traditional” to “modern.” *Traditional  Charismatic  Modern society

7 7 2. Karl Deutsch *developed ways of measuring traditional versus modern societies. *Called political modernization, "social mobilization," with people moving from traditional to modern areas of society. *shown by urbanization, higher literacy, new ideas emerge through communications channels, breakdown of traditional social groups.

8 8 D. Political Development 1. Linear Path of Political Development? *political systems, like economic ones, go through stages of growth and development. *Organski: "development"--increasing government efficiency in mobilizing human and material resources by the state towards national political and economic ends. *political scientists argued that democratic systems was highest form of political development.

9 9 D. Political Development 2. Huntington's Five Goals of Development * equality, economic growth, state autonomy ( 獨 立 ) democracy, stability *in 1950s all goals seen to be compatible, attainable at same time, just as in Western Europe and North America

10 10 D. Political Development 3. Incompatibility Theories: *new states often collapsed under pressures of rapid economic growth or inequality. Why? *high rates of economic growth and social mobilization are politically destabilizing (because they generate inequality)

11 11 D. Political Development *state institutions cannot manage economic and political demands of society *led to participation crisis, “political decay” and collapse of regimes, rise of military and non- democratic system.

12 12 E. State Building 1. Definitions of State/ Nation? –remember from previous class? 2. What are the Origins of the State? Shiveley: modernization, growth of capitalism, commerce, technology, creates needs for laws, uniform rules, and rise of state. Tilly: states developed as threat of war forced monarchy to control resources, taxes, penetrate society, increased bureaucracy and increase state capacity.

13 13 E. State Building - Definitions of State/Nation (continued) 2. Old Regimes and New States * collapse of old pre-revolutionary regimes due to war and incapacity of traditional regimes to defeat the foreign powers. * introduces importance of international factors in a state’s political development

14 14 F. State Strength, Capacity, and Legitimacy 1. Strength of modern state based on: a. capacity b. autonomy 獨立 c. legitimacy 正統 2. Capacity: ability to enforce laws, implement policies, deliver goods and services

15 15 F. State Strength, Capacity, and Legitimacy (continued) 3. Evans: Autonomous state organizations are not controlled by narrow social interests *fulfils functions such as taxation (extraction), promotion of economic development, *can mobilize social forces for economic growth *If state is too strong, it is isolated 脫離 from society; it cannot control society. *How would I know a “strong” state from a “weak” one?

16 16 F. State Strength, Capacity, and Legitimacy (continued) 4. Legitimacy ( 正統 ): *legitimate state gains compliance ( 順從 )easily * people follow rules because they should listen to the state. *Results from: a. good governance or ability of state to deliver welfare benefits; b. people's habits to follow law; c. religious or ethnic identity ( 身份 )with the state; d. war of independence or revolution makes people loyal( 忠於 ) to the regime

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