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National Protection and Programs Directorate Department of Homeland Security The Office of Infrastructure Protection September 26, 2013 InfraGard Nebraska.

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Presentation on theme: "National Protection and Programs Directorate Department of Homeland Security The Office of Infrastructure Protection September 26, 2013 InfraGard Nebraska."— Presentation transcript:

1 National Protection and Programs Directorate Department of Homeland Security The Office of Infrastructure Protection September 26, 2013 InfraGard Nebraska & Bellevue University Active Shooter: Preparedness and Response

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3 Active Shooter Situation Overview  Active Shooter situation is defined as those in which an individual is “actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a confined and populated area”  Although many perpetrators have a history of negative—sometimes violent behavior, there is still no single, accurate one-size-fits-all profile of an active shooter 3

4 Recent Active Shooter Incidents  On September 16, 2013, 12 people were killed and 8 injured at the Naval Ship Yard in Washington, DC  On December 20, 2012, 26 people were killed in Sandy Hook Elementary School, in Newtown, CT  On August 5, 2012, 7 people were killed and 1 injured in a Sikh temple in Oak Creek, WI  On July 20, 2012, 12 people were killed and 58 were injured in a movie theater in Aurora, CO  On January 8, 2011, 6 people were killed and 13 were injured (including U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords) in a supermarket parking lot in Tucson, AZ 4

5 Recent Active Shooter Incidents  On February 14, 2008, 6 people killed and 17 wounded at Northerner Illinois University in DeKalb IL.  On December 5, 2007, 9 people were killed and 4 wounded at Von Maur in Omaha, NE  On April 16, 2007, 32 people were killed and 17 were wounded at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, VA  On November 5, 2007, 13 people were killed and 29 were injured on Fort Hood Army Base in Ft. Hood, TX  More than 250 people have been killed in the United States during what has been classified as active shooter and mass casualty incidents since the Columbine High School shootings in 1999. 5

6 Active Shooter Statistics 84 Active Shooter Events, 2000-2010  37% in business locations  34% in schools  17% in outdoor public venues  41% used multiple weapons  4% of the attackers wore body armor  Median number of people killed was 2 6

7 Active Shooter Data  71% of the attackers just walked into the location  49% of the attackers committed suicide  17% of the attackers were killed  34% of the attackers were arrested  37% of the attacks were over in under 5 minutes  63% of the attacks were over in under 15 (12) minutes Source: John Nicoletti, Ph.D. (Nicoletti-Flater Associates) as provided to PERF 4/22/13 7

8 Who does this? No Profile Exists Statistics on 35 Active Shooter events in 2012:  57% of the attackers were insiders (known)  63% of the attackers broadcasted a perceived injustice  71% of the victims initially targeted were the focus of the perceived injustice  74% of the attackers entered through the main entrance 8

9 Active Shooter Motivation While motivations for active shooter incidents are difficult to fully determine, some common “triggers” may include:  Loss of significant relationships  Feelings of humiliation/rejection  Changes in financial status  Major adverse changes to life circumstances  Loss of job  Changes in living arrangements  Overreaction to workplace changes  Expressions of paranoia or depression  Exploiting or blaming others 9

10 Motivations  Many active shooters were described as “social isolates,” harbored feelings of hate or anger, and/or had some reported contact with mental health professionals  Few had previous arrests for violent crimes 10

11 Behavioral Indicators  Many offenders may display certain behaviors during pre-attack planning. These predatory behaviors may be observable to persons familiar with the offender.  Studies on shootings vary; however, all conclude that in approximately 80% to 90% of shootings, at least one person had information that the attacker was thinking about or planning the attack.  Some of these behaviors may include: –Development of a personal grievance –Contextually inappropriate and recent acquisition of multiple weapons –Inappropriate and recent escalation in target practice and weapons training 11

12 Behavioral Indicators (cont)  Recent interest in explosives and improvised explosive devices (IEDs)  Inappropriate and intense interest or fascination with previous active shootings or mass attacks  Many offenders experienced a significant real or perceived personal loss in the weeks and/or months leading up to the attack, such as a death breakup, divorce, or loss of a job. 12

13 Threat Assessment Teams  Research shows that perpetrators of targeted acts of violence engage in both covert and overt behaviors preceding their attacks  One of the most useful tools a facility can develop to identify, evaluate, and address these troubling signs is a multidisciplinary Threat Assessment Team (TAT)  The TAT should be multidisciplinary and should meet your facility needs  Include mental health professionals, human resources, security director, general counsel, and law enforcement who will analyze the behavior to provide holistic threat management assessment  Once a Course of Action is developed, the implementation of additional protective measures should be considered to prevent violence  University of Nebraska Lincoln -- Association of Threat Assessment Professionals (ATAP) 13

14 Law Enforcement Efforts  Facilities must foster a close working relationship with local law enforcement agencies to evaluate possible risk of violence  Best practices and lessons learned  Jointly map out incident management procedures  Tours of the facility to enhance their familiarization of the building  Involve emergency services responders from multiple agencies in facility training and exercises to improve response reactions  Law enforcement agencies are developing standard response protocol for multiple law enforcement agency response  Advanced FBI Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training (ALERRT) 14

15 Vulnerability Assessment  When developing plans for an adaptive threats (i.e., active shooter) examining plans “through the eyes of the adversary” can lead to significant improvements and a higher probability of success. This process is known as” “Red-Teaming”.  Conduct a vulnerability assessment to identify vulnerabilities in preventing, mitigating, and responding to an active shooter/mass casualty incident. The assessment should encompass : –Security program –Employee, contractor, and vendor screening and background check program –Access control procedures –Physical security program –Electronic security systems –Emergency communication system –Emergency preparedness program –Executive Protection 15

16 Creating an Emergency Action Plan  To best prepare your staff for an active shooter situation, create an Emergency Action Plan (EAP), and conduct training exercises. Together, the EAP and training exercises will prepare your staff to effectively respond and help minimize loss of life  Components of an Emergency Action Plan: –Emergency notification procedures (Internally and Externally) –Lockdown procedures –Evacuation /Reverse evacuation –Emergency escape procedures and route assignments (i.e., floor plans, safe areas), and rally points –Employee accountability –Bomb threat (telephone/suspicious package) –Family reunification points –Emergency contact information for emergency services, hospitals, and key personnel –Media Response Plan 16

17 Creating an Emergency Action Plan  Ensure that plans assess and provide for functional needs: –Hearing or sight –Mobility –Limited or no English proficiency  Integrate tenant organizations within the building into the EAP, emergency notification system, and exercises  Integrate tenants into Threat Assessment Team process 17

18 Pre-Incident Planning  Human Resources Department Responsibilities: –Conduct comprehensive employee/contractor screening and background checks –Publicize Workplace Violence policy –Create a system for reporting signs of potentially violent behavior –Ensure managers and supervisors are trained to detect abnormal behavior and elevate high risk behavior to HR. –Make counseling services available to employees –Develop an EAP, which includes policies and procedures for dealing with an active shooter situation and other risks as well as after action plan 18

19 Pre-Incident Planning  Facility Manager Considerations –Institute access controls (i.e., keys and electronic access control systems) –Provide Operators/Security Control Center emergency action checklists –Develop pre-recorded Lock-Down and Active Shooter response messages –Do not utilize “Code words’ (e.g. Code Silver); use plain language –Ensure public address system can be heard throughout the facility (i.e. restrooms, entrances, mechanical rooms, elevators, and stairways) –Provide alternate emergency notification capability (i.e., E2Campus text messaging, email, and computer screen messages –Designate trained “Floor Monitors” to lead response in their areas –Assemble “Emergency Go-Kits” containing: radios, floor plans, staff roster/staff emergency contact numbers, first aid kits, flashlights –Designate “Safe Rooms” that will protect individuals during a Lock-Down –Ensure Safe Rooms and office doors can be locked from inside the room –Position telephones and first aid kits in Safe Rooms 19

20 Pre-Incident Planning (cont) –Place removable floor plans near entrances and exits for emergency responders –Develop your emergency action plan in close coordination with local law enforcement and fire department agencies for lessons learned and best practices. –Is security technology, such as closed circuit television, in place to assist law enforcement in locating the shooter(s) and victims? –Consider providing law enforcement copies of building floor plans? –What procedures are available to provide facility access to emergency responders? –Are there safety concerns as first responders enter process areas? –Enroll in the DHS Government Emergency Telecommunication System (GETS) and Wireless Priority Service (WPS) 20

21 Incident Recovery Considerations  Addressing Victims and Families –Has the facility established a family hotline? –What is the process to assist with victim identification? –Who is responsible for gathering information related to victim identities, extent of injuries, and what hospitals are being utilized? –What is the procedure to notify the family members? Who performs the notifications and are they trained for this responsibility? –Will facility personnel procure counselors for employees and families? –How will concerns about returning to work be handled?  Communicating Internally –What instructions will management give to the employees and how will it be communicated? Should they return to their homes, remain onsite at a specified location, go to another site, etc.? –How will management communicate with families? 21

22 Incident Recovery Considerations (cont.)  Communication Externally –Who is the designated official for responding to media inquiries? –What information and details will facility personnel provide to the media that will ease community concerns without inciting panic or hindering the investigation?  Continuing Business Operations –What are the business recovery/continuity plans? Does the facility have a Business Continuity Plan? –Who will make re-entry decisions? –Who will provide safety and security debriefings? –What actions are needed to ensure employees feel safe? –How will the facility continue operating with limited production or with certain areas of the facility designated a crime scene? 22

23 Training Program -- Trained versus Untrained 23

24 Workplace Violence & Active Shooter Training  Integrate workplace violence and active shooter training into new employee (contractor) orientation and annual recurring emergency preparedness training  Exercise facility lockdown and active shooter response protocols through drills, table-top, and full-scale exercises  Supervisors should discuss “what if” scenarios with employees and contractors to rehearse their plan of action and to identify gaps in planning and training. 24

25 Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003  The Department of Homeland Security has released Active Shooter, What You Can Do (IS- 907), a new free online training course available through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Emergency Management Institute (EMI) at IS/IS907.asp. IS/IS907.asp  Classroom training lesson plans and videos for employee training 25 Training and Outreach Material

26 Training and Outreach Materials  Materials consist of three products: –Basic Guide Book –Break Room Poster –Pocket Emergency Measures Guide 26 To download these materials visit: preparedness preparedness

27 Responding to an Active Shooter Situation  In an active shooter situation, you should quickly determine the most reasonable way to protect your own life. You should: 1.Evacuate: If there is an accessible escape path, attempt to evacuate the premises 2.Hide Out: If evacuation is not possible, find a place to hide where the active shooter is less likely to find you 3.Take Action: As a last resort, and only when your life is in imminent danger, attempt to disrupt and/or incapacitate the active shooter  It is important for employees to be trained so that they can react if they are ever confronted with an active shooter situation  These situations evolve quickly, therefore, quick decisions could mean the difference between life and death  If you are in harm’s way, you will need to decide rapidly what the safest course of action is based on the scenario that is unfolding before you 27

28 Evacuate  If you suspect a potential active shooter situation, you must quickly determine the most reasonable way to protect your own life; if there is an accessible escape path, attempt to evacuate the premises  Always have an escape route and plan in mind even if you are just visiting  Make sure to leave your belongings behind  Be sure to: –Warn others not to enter an area where the active shooter may be –Help others escape, if possible –Evacuate regardless of whether others agree to follow –Do not attempt to move wounded people –Keep your hands visible –Follow the instructions of law enforcement officers 28 Call 911 when it is safe to do so.

29 Hide Out  If safe evacuation is not possible, find a place to hide where the active shooter is less likely to find you. Your hiding place should: –Be out of the active shooter’s view –Provide protection if shots are fired in your direction (i.e., office with a closed and locked door) –Not be a trap or restrictive of your options for movement  To prevent an active shooter from entering your hiding place : –Lock the door –Blockade the door with heavy furniture –Close, cover, and move away from the door 29

30 Take Action  As a last resort, and only when your life is in imminent danger, should you attempt to incapacitate the shooter by acting with physical aggression –Act as aggressively as possible against him/her –Throw items and improvise weapons –Yell –Commit to your actions –If neither running nor hiding is a safe option, as a last resort when confronted by the shooter, adults in immediate danger should consider trying to disrupt or incapacitate the shooter by using aggressive force and items in their environment, such as fire extinguishers and chairs. 30

31 Assisting Emergency Responders  When possible, provide the following information to law enforcement officers or 911 operators: –Location of the active shooter –Number of shooters, if more than one –Physical description of the shooter(s) –Number and type of weapons held by the shooter(s) –Number of potential victims at the location  The primary goal of law enforcement is to eliminate the threat and stop the active shooter –Law Enforcement will not be able to stop to help injured persons until the environment is safe –Officer(s) will take command of the situation; expect to experience officers shouting orders and even pushing individuals to the ground for their safety 31

32 Recovery  After an incident occurs, it is important to manage the consequences, and analyze the lessons learned  Post-event activities includes accounting for missing persons, determining a method for notifying families of victims, and referring individuals at the scene for follow-up care, including grief counseling  To facilitate effective planning for future emergencies, analyze the recent active shooter situation for lessons learned, create an after action report, refine the EAP, and conduct training 32

33 For more information visit: Greg Hollingsead Protective Security Advisor - NE 402-981-8970

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