2 Topics: Positioning myself Basics of mixed methods research Tips from a journal editorBasic ideas about writing a mixed methods journal articleReview of two published mixed methods studies
3 View research as set of interactive components; not always linear Positioning MyselfView research as set of interactive components; not always linearFocus on rigorous data collection and analysisWork as an applied research methodologistTrained in quantitative research, embraced qualitative research, advocated for mixed methodsOften consult with individuals in a step-by-step processUse steps in writing a mixed methods study are not in the order typically found in the process of researchWill apply some of the steps, the major ones3
5 Six core characteristics of mixed methods research The collection of both qualitative and quantitative data (open- and closed-ended) in response to research questionsThe analysis of both qualitative and quantitative dataPersuasive and rigorous procedures for the qualitative and quantitative methodsThe integration of these two data sources (merging, connecting, embedding)The use of a specific mixed methods design that involves a concurrent or sequential integration (and equal or unequal emphases)An approach to research that has a philosophical foundation
6 When Should You Use Mixed Methods? When the research problem merits this approach, such as,when one data source is insufficientwhen a need exists to explain resultswhen a need exists to explore firstwhen a need exists to augment one database with another
7 What are the Challenges to Conducting Mixed Methods Research? Skills in both qualitative and quantitative researchOpenness to multiple methodsConvincing others of the value of mixed methodsTime/resourcesFamiliarity with mixed methods
9 Founding Editors: John W. Creswell and Abbas TashakkoriCurrent Editors: Max Bergman(Switzerland) and Donna Mertens(USA)
10 Additional mixed methods journals… Field MethodsQuality and QuantityInternational Journal of Multiple Research Approaches (on-line)Other journals that publish mixed methods studies(e.g., International Journal of Social Research Methodology)Special issue journals10
11 Types of articles published in JMMR Empirical articles – report of research studies in content areas (e.g., family medicine, communication studies, sociology, etc.)Methodological, theoretical articles – conceptual articles on timely topics in mixed methods that advance our knowledge of mixed methods researchBook/software reviews
12 Aspects of a good mixed methods empirical study Researchers collect both quantitative and qualitative dataBoth procedures are developed with rigorThere is a linking – integration or connection – between the two types of dataResearchers suggest implications for advancing the field of mixed methods research as well as the content field
13 What criteria did I use as editor of JMMR I go to the “methods” section to see if quantitative and qualitative data are collected.I look in the “results” and “discussion” sections for some connection, merging, or embedding of one type of data in the other.I look in the “methods” discussion for rigorous quantitative and qualitative procedures.I look throughout the manuscript for how the author has positioned the study within the field of mixed methods research and how the study contributes a thoughtful, unique contribution to the mixed methods literature.I look in the “introduction” and throughout the manuscript for the paradigm stance of the author.I look at the “title” and the references to see if the author cites and is familiar with the mixed methods literature.I look in the “introduction” for the rationale for using mixed methods to study the research problem.
14 Basic Ideas About Writing a Mixed Methods Journal Article
15 Recommendations on writing and publishing mixed methods studies in the health sciences Stange KC, Crabtree BF, Miller W.L. Publishing multimethod research. Ann Fam Med. 2006; 4:Publish quan and qual papers in separate journals, but with clear references and links to the other article(s).Publish concurrent or sequential quantitative and qualitative papers in the same journal.Publish an integrated single article that describes both methods and findings and draws overarching lessons (with/w/o details in appendices)Co-publish separate qualitative and quantitative papers accompanied by a third paper that draws overarching lessons from analyses across the two methods.Develop an online discussion of readers and invited commentators to foster cross-disciplinary communities of knowledge.
16 Basic guidelines for writing a mixed methods study Recognize that there is a structure to writing journal articles.Match the writing structure to the type of research design (e.g., mismatch - writing conclusions in concurrent style when design is sequential)Look at published mixed methods studies for models of writingConsider the following embedded elements from mixed methods in the writing of an article
17 Elements of “good” mixed methods research to incorporate into a journal article (or proposal for funding)Title: Use words “mixed methods.” Also, create neutral title words that do not tip into qual or quan approach. Tip the words if the design calls for a strong priority for qual or quan.Abstract: Include information about the type of mixed methods design used.Statement of the Problem: Consider the reason for using mixed methods, and hint at this reason as a deficiency in past research.Write a good mixed methods purpose statement (study aims): Use script to write so that it includes a) general intent b) quan and qual purpose, data collection and analysis c) specific reason for mixing and how mixing occurred in the study.If you include research questions: State quan question (or hypotheses), qualitative question, and a mixed methods question.
18 Elements of “good” mixed methods research to incorporate into a journal article (or proposal for funding)Mixed methods design: Identify the type of design used, draw a visual figure, define the design-type, give reasons for including the design (if not redundant with other information). Include references to recent mixed methods literature.Quan and Qual methods: Include detailed description of separate quan and qual methods to include: specific forms of quan and qual designs (e.g., correlational, grounded theory), recruitment procedures, sample selection, sample size, forms of data collection, topics related to data collection (e.g., validity, reliability of scores on instruments), types of data analysisResults: Report quan and qual results separately or concurrently. Make sure that results are consistent with the flow of the design and the priority given to the quan and qual sections. This section will be organized to reflect the type of design used in the study.Discussion: Report general quan and qual results for the study. Make sure that discussion mirrors the type of design in flow.Limitations: Among the limitations identify any challenges that arose during the mixed methods design.Future research: Talk about how the study adds to the mixed methods literature and opens up further lines for investigation.
19 A Review of Two Mixed Methods Journal Articles A mixed methods study in the aging research field (Classen, Lopez, Winter, Awadzi, Ferree, Garvan (2007)A mixed methods study in the social sciences (Ivankova & Stick, 2007)
20 Population-based health promotion perspective O R I G I N A L R E S E A R C HPopulation-based health promotion perspectivefor older driver safety: Conceptual frameworkto intervention planSherrilene ClassenEllen DS LopezSandra WinterKezia D AwadzNita FerreeCynthia W GarvanAbstract: The topic of motor vehicle crashes among the elderly is dynamic and multi-facetedrequiring a comprehensive and synergistic approach to intervention planning. This approachmust be based on the values of a given population as well as health statistics and asserted throughcommunity, organizational and policy strategies. An integrated summary of the predictors (quantitativeresearch), and views (qualitative research) of the older drivers and their stakeholders,does not currently exist. This study provided an explicit socio-ecological view explaining theinterrelation of possible causative factors, an integrated summary of these causative factors, andempirical guidelines for developing public health interventions to promote older driver safety.Using a mixed methods approach, we were able to compare and integrate main findings from anational crash dataset with perspectives of stakeholders. We identified: 11 multi-causal factorsfor safe elderly driving; the importance of the environmental factors - previously underratedin the literature- interacting with behavioral and health factors; and the interrelatedness amongmany socio-ecological factors. For the first time, to our knowledge, we conceptualized thefundamental elements of a multi-causal health promotion plan, with measurable intermediateand long-term outcomes. After completing the detailed plan we will test the effectiveness ofthis intervention on multiple levels.Keywords: safe elderly driving, mixed-method approach, public health model, interventionplan, health promotionClinical Interventions in Aging 2007: 2(4)
21 CLASSEN ET AL. (2007) – FOCUS ON THE MIXED METHODS RESEARCH METHODS Overall study: good illustration of mixed methodsTitle: neutralAuthors: skill set of teamTheory: a priori, framework for data analysisRationale for mixed methods: a more complete analysisQuestions: quan and qual research questionsDatasets – Quan FARS dataset; 6 Qual studies – separate data analysisProcedures: Concurrent data collection, separate analysis, priority (perhaps QUAN)Findings - integrating the two datasets around model; side by side comparison; additional findings beyond comparisonsMethodological limitations – heterogeneous datasetsFigure of procedures
22 STUDENTS’ PERSISTENCE IN A DISTRIBUTED DOCTORAL PROGRAM IN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN HIGHER EDUCATION:A Mixed Methods StudyNataliya V. Ivankova*,† and Sheldon L. Stick**The purpose of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study was to identifyfactors contributing to students’ persistence in the University of Nebraska-LincolnDistributed Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership in Higher Education byobtaining quantitative results from surveying 278 current and former students andthen following up with four purposefully selected typical respondents to explorethose results in more depth. In the first, quantitative, phase, five external andinternal to the program factors were found to be predictors to students’ persistencein the program: ‘‘program’’, ‘‘online learning environment’’, ‘‘student supportservices’’, ‘‘faculty’’, and ‘‘self-motivation’’. In the qualitative follow up multiplecase study analysis four major themes emerged: (1) quality of academicexperiences; (2) online learning environment; (3) support and assistance; and (4)student self-motivation. The quantitative and qualitative findings from the twophases of the study are discussed with reference to prior research. Implicationsand recommendations for policy makers are provided.KEY WORDS: persistence; doctoral students; distributed program; online learningenvironment.INTRODUCTIONGraduate education is a major part of American higher education, withmore than 1850 million students enrolled in graduate programs (NCES,2002). Approximately one fifth are graduate students pursuing doctoral*Assistant Professor, Department of Human Studies, University of Alabama at Birmingham,EB 202, rd Ave S, Birmingham, AL, USA.**Professor, Department of Educational Administration, University of Nebraska-Lincoln,123 Teachers College Hall, Lincoln, NE , USA._Address correspondence to: Nataliya V. Ivankova, Department of Human Studies,University of Alabama at Birmingham, EB 202, rd Ave S, Birmingham, AL ,USA.93/07/ /0 _ 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.Research in Higher Education, Vol. 48, No. 1, February 2007DOI: /s
23 An explanatory sequential design in a distance learning study This study reported an investigation of understanding students’ persistence in the Distance Learning Doctoral Program in Educational leadership in Higher Education (ELHE) offered by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The purpose was to identify factors contributing to students’ persistence in the ELHE Program.A quantitative Web-based survey of 278 current and former students was undertaken in the first phase. This survey measured predictors in the program related to program, adviser, faculty, institution, and student factors (based on a theoretical model). The dependent variable was status in the program organized into beginning students, matriculated students, graduated students, and inactive students.Following this initial quantitative phase, a second qualitative phase consisted of collecting data from four individuals, one representing each group, using multiple data sources to develop four case study profiles.Source: Ivankova, N. V.,& Stick, S. L. (2007). Students’ persistence in a distributed doctoral program in educational leadership in higher education: A mixed methods study. Research in Higher Education, 48,
24 Ivankova & Stick (2007) study: Overall study: good illustration of mixed methods – sequential design; 42 printed pages - longTitle: neutralAuthors: mixed methods specialist, quantitative specialist, doctoral dissertationPurpose statement: intent, first phase, second phaseTheory: a priori, framework for data analysisMixed methods design: type of design, rationale for designFigure of procedures: phases, procedures, productDatasets: Quan survey dataset; Qual case study designPoint of interface: case selectionResults and Discussion: Quan, then qual