2 “Products” of Planning Dissertation or masters thesisProposal for external fundingPlanning the steps that will be undertaken in the researchFocus on a dissertation or masters thesisLet’s not get stuck – value in seeing the entire planning process
3 Our Agenda:View typical contents for a proposal for mixed methods researchSelect steps in the process of planning a studyDesign a mixed methods study as a group using one example in a “guided design” approachAssemble the final plan in order of standard presentation of a planIndividuals can plan their own studies as we go through “guided design”Share the final plans at the end of the session
4 Outline of the Structure of a Proposal for a Dissertation or Thesis (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007, p. 155)Title (foreshadows mixed methods study and type of design)IntroductionThe research problemPast research on the problemDeficiencies in past research and one deficiency related to a need to collect both quantitative and qualitative dataThe audiences that will profit from the studyPurposeThe purpose or study aim of the project (use the scripts) and reasons for mixed methodsThe research questionsQuantitative,qualitative,mixed methods research questions/hypothesesPhilosophical foundations for using mixed methods and the type of design (optional)Literature Review (include quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods studies, if they are available)MethodsA definition of mixed methods researchThe type of design used, and its definitionChallenges in using this designExamples of using the type of design (in your field, if possible)Reference and inclusion of a visual diagramQuantitative data collection and analysisQualitative data collection and analysisMixed methods data analysis proceduresValidity approaches in both quantitative and qualitative researchResearcher’s Resources and SkillsPotential Ethical IssuesTimeline for Completing the StudyReferences/Appendices with instruments/protocols
5 Components of a Plan that We will Design Title (foreshadows mixed methods study and type of design)IntroductionThe research problemPast research on the problemDeficiencies in past research and one deficiency related to a need to collect both quantitative and qualitative dataThe audiences that will profit from the studyPurposeThe purpose or study aim of the project and reasons for mixed methodsThe research questions/hypothesesQuantitative,qualitative,mixed methods research questions/hypotheses (create separate sections for each set of questionsPhilosophical foundations for using mixed methods and the type of design (optional)Literature Review (include quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods studies, if they are available)MethodsA definition of mixed methods researchThe type of design used, and its definitionChallenges in using this designExamples of using the type of design (in your field, if possible)Reference and inclusion of a visual diagramQuantitative data collection and analysisQualitative data collection and analysisMixed methods data analysis proceduresValidity approaches in both quantitative and qualitative researchResearcher’s Resources and SkillsPotential Ethical IssuesTimeline for Completing the StudyReferences/Appendices with instruments/protocols
6 Components That We Will Design (in order that we will address them ) TitleThe research problem –Content intentContent issue(s)Reasons for mixed methodsResearcher’s resources and skillsDefinition of mixed methodsQualitative data collection and analysisQuantitative data collection and analysisResearch questions (qualitative, quantitative, mixed)Type of designVisual diagramPhilosophical foundationPurpose statement
7 Designing a title Topic Writing the title Short Identify participants and siteConsider a neutral title, neither quantitative or qualitative in wordingInclude the words “mixed methods”
9 The Research Problem Intent of the study What are you trying to accomplish in this study?One sentenceNarrow down to one overriding goalProblemWhat content issue are you addressing?Real life problemDeficiency in the literaturePractice needs of audienceAll of the above
12 Reasons for Mixed Methods Why are you planning to use mixed methods in your study? What purpose (research objective) will it accomplish?Why do you plan on gathering both quan and qual data?Think about this from a research methods perspective.
13 Reasons for Conducting a Mixed Methods Study (Bryman, Qualitative Research, 2006) Validity – to corroborate quan and qual dataOffset – offset weaknesses of quan and qual and draw on strengthsCompleteness – more comprehensive account that qual/qual aloneProcess – quan provides outcomes; qual, the processesDifferent question – quan and qual answer different questionsExplanation – qual can explain quan results or vice-versaUnexpected results – surprising results from one, other explainsInstr development – qual employed to design instr, then instr testedSampling – one approach facilitates sampling from other approachCredibility – both approaches enhance integrity of findingsContext – qual provides context; quan provides general.Illustration – qual data helps develop “depth” for quan dataUtility – more useful to practitionersConfirm – quan tests qual generated hypothesesDiversity of views – relationship and meaning; researcher/participant viewsEnhancement – augmenting or building on one form of data with the other
15 Research Skills and Resources Are you qualified to conduct a mixed methods study?Quantitative courseworkQualitative courseworkPersonal experience conducting a mixed methods studySupport from your committee/support from your fieldTime and resources
17 Definition of Mixed Methods How would you describe this approach?Focus on methods?Focus on methodology?Focus on paradigm/worldview?Focus on application to traditional design?Aspects I would include:DefinitionCitations to studies that have employed itMajor characteristics of the design
18 Methodology – Definition of Mixed Methods Research Mixed methods research is a design for collecting, analyzing, and mixing both quantitative and qualitative research (or data) in a single study or series of studies to understand a research problem. (adapted from Creswell and Plano Clark, 2007)
19 Sites/Individuals to be Studied Quantitative sampleQualitative sampleSampling
20 Types of Quantitative and Qualitative Data to be Collected Quantitative dataInstrumentsChecklistsRecordsQualitative dataInterviewsObservationsDocumentsAudio-visual materialsQuantitative dataClose-ended scalesAttitudinal/behavioral scalesBehavioral checklistsCensus, attendance recordsQualitative dataOpen-ended responsesSemi-structured interviewsSemi-structured observationsRecords/documentsVideotapesImages such as pictures or drawings
21 Data Collection Site to be studied Participants to be studied Forms of data collectionQuanQual
22 Quantitative and Qualitative Data Analysis Quantitative analysisUse statistical analysis,For descriptionFor comparing groupsFor relating variablesQualitative analysisUse text and images,For codingFor theme developmentFor relating themesQuantitative analysisNumeric dataDescriptive trend analysisHypothesis testing, effect size, interval estimatesQualitative analysis:Text/image dataCodingThemesDescriptionInterrelated themes to build a picture of the phenomenon.
24 Research Questions Quantitative questions Qualitative questions Describing variablesRelating variablesComparing variablesThink in terms of i.v., d.v. at least (narrowed, closed-ended)TheoryQualitative questionsExploring a single phenomenonGeneral, open-endedMixed methods questionsWhat will you learn by “mixing”Combine quan and qual and what you hope to achieve by it (reasons)
25 Research Questions Quantitative questions Qualitative questions Mixed method question
26 Type of Mixed Methods Design Will the quan and qual data be collected:TimingSequentially? – one builds on the otherConcurrently? – both are collected at the same timeEmphasisQuan emphasized?Qual emphasized?MixingMerging?Connecting?Embedding?
27 Concurrent Mixed Methods Designs Triangulation DesignQUAN Data & ResultsInterpretationQUAL Data & ResultsEmbedded DesignQUAN Pre-test Data & ResultsQUAN Post-test Data & ResultsInterventionqual ProcessInterpretation
28 Before-intervention qual After-intervention qual Sequential Designs Mixed Methods DesignsExplanatory DesignQUAN Data & ResultsInterpretationqual Data & ResultsFollowing upExploratory DesignQUAL Data & Resultsquan Data & ResultsInterpretationBuilding toSequential Embedded DesignBefore-intervention qualQUAN InterventionTrialAfter-intervention qualInterpretation
29 Worldview or Paradigm for Study PostpositivismDeterminationReductionismEmpirical observation and measurementTheory verificationConstructivismUnderstandingMultiple participant meaningsSocial and historical constructionTheory generationAdvocacy/ParticipatoryPoliticalEmpowerment issue-orientedCollaborativeChange-orientedPragmatismConsequences of actionsProblem-centeredPluralisticReal-world practice oriented
30 Purpose Statement Most important statement in your project plan Follow one of my scripts to get started (can adapt later)Elements of scripts:Intent (from earlier)Include qualitative purpose statement (central phenomenon, data collection, participants, site)Include quantitative purpose statement (variables, data collection, participants, site)Reason for a mixed methods study
31 Explanatory Sequential QUAN qualThe intent of this two-phase, sequential mixed methods study will be to ______________________ (mention content objective of the study). In the first phase, quantitative research questions or hypotheses will address the ___________ relationship or comparison of ___________ (independent) and ___________ (dependent) variables with ___________ (participants) at ______________ (the research site). Information from this first phase will be explored further in a second qualitative phase. In the second phase, qualitative interviews or observations will be used to probe significant _______________ (quantitative results) by exploring aspects of the _____________ (central phenomenon) with ______________ (a few participants) at ____________ (research site). The reason for following up with qualitative research in the second phase is to __________________ (e.g., better understand and explain the quantitative results).
32 Exploratory Sequential QUAL quanThe intent of this two-phase, sequential mixed methods study will be to _______________ (mention content objective of the study). The first phase will be a qualitative exploration of a ____________ (central phenomenon) by collecting ___________ (types of data) from __________ (participants) at ___________ (research site). Findings from this qualitative phase will then be used to test ________ (a theory, research questions, or hypotheses) that ____________ (relate, compare)____________ (independent variable) with _____________ (dependent variable) for _________ (sample of population) at ___________ (research site). The reason for collecting qualitative data initially is that ______________ (e.g., instruments are inadequate or not available, variables are not known, there is little guiding theory, or few taxonomies).
33 Concurrent QUAL + QUANThe intent of this concurrent mixed methods study is to __________________ (content objective of the study). In the study, ___________ (quantitative instruments) will be used to measure the relationship between _____________ (independent variable) and ____________ (dependent variable). At the same time, the _____________ (central phenomenon) will be explored using _______________ (qualitative interviews or observations) with ___________ (participants) at _______________ (the research site). The reason for combining both quantitative and qualitative data is to better understand a research problem by converging both quantitative (broad numeric trends) and qualitative (detailed views) data.
34 Embedded QUAN(qual) or QUAL(quan) This mixed methods study will address _________________ (overall content aim of the study). An embedded mixed method design will be used, and it is a design in which one data set provides a supportive, secondary role in a study based primarily on the other data set. The primary purpose of this study will use ________________ (quantitative instruments) to test the theory of _____________ (the theory) that predicts that __________________ (independent variables) will influence ________________ (positively, negatively) the __________ (dependent variables or outcomes) for ____________ (participants) at __________ (the research site). A secondary purpose will be to gather qualitative data _______________ (type of qualitative data, such as interviews) that will explore ____________ (the central phenomenon) for _________________ (participants) at _____________(site). The reason for collecting the secondary database is ________________ (e.g., to address different question, to provide support for the primary purpose).