2Essential questionWhy do we trust that Scientists have correct explanations for how “things” work?
3ObservationsScientist use observations during an investigation to gauge how the process is going but they also make many observations to design their investigations.How do we make observations?Are some observations more important that others?Activity: Candle ObservationsOn a piece of paper, you will make as many observations has you can about the candles that I show you. You may organize your paper how ever you would like.
4Steps in the Scientific Method ObservationHypothesisExperimentData CollectionConclusionRetest
5Observations Gathered through your senses A scientist notices something in their natural world
6A procedure to test the hypothesis. ExperimentA procedure to test the hypothesis.
7Variable – factor in the experiment that is being tested
8A good or “valid” experiment will only have ONE variable!
9Scientific Experiments Follow Rules An experimenter changes one factor and observes or measures what happens.
10The Control VariableThe experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not effect the outcome.Those factors are called control variables.
11What is the Purpose of a Control? Controls are NOT being testedControls are used for COMPARISON
12Other VariablesThe factor that is changed is known as the independent variable.The factor that is measured or observed is called the dependent variable.
13Example of Controls & Variables For example, suppose you want to figure outthe fastest route to walk home from school.You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one.Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself.
14What are the Variables in Your Experiment? Varying the route is the independent variableThe time it takes is the dependent variableKeeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable.
15One more thing… it is best to make several trials with each independent variable.
16Remember: To be a Valid Experiment: Two groups are required --- the control & experimental groupsThere should be only one variable
17Hypothesis A suggested solution to the problem. Must be testable Sometimes written as If…Then… statementsPredicts an outcome
18HypothesisAn example of a hypothesis might be that the salamanders have curved tails due to a pollutant in the moist soil where they live.
19Rules in Constructing a Hypothesis Do not use I, me, my, they – no possessive pronouns.If possible needs to be in a independent – dependent variable format. (IF this happens, THEN this will happen. )It is a statement not a question.Example:If salt is added to fresh water, then the water will takelonger to freeze.
20The If statement explains how the manipulated variable is going to be changed. The then statement explains how the responding variable is affected by changing the manipulated variable.If the mass of a paper helicopter is increased, then the time it takes to drop to the ground will decrease.If fertilizer is given to a plant, then the growth of the plant will increase.If a ball is hit with a wooden bat, then the ball will travel farther than an aluminum bat.
21What is WrongHypothesis 1: If plants are given fertilizer, then the height of the plant will change.*In hypothesis 1 the then statement is not specific enough.Hypothesis 2: If a plants height increases, then it was because of the fertilizer.* In hypothesis 2 the dependent variable was talked about in the If statement and the independent variable was talked about in the then statement.Hypothesis 3: If the height of plant that is given fertilizer increases, then it is because the fertilizer gave the plant added nutrients.* Hypothesis 3 has two problems. The first problem is like hypothesis 2, the if and then statements are mixed up. The second problem is this hypothesis does not give a prediction for the scientific question stated above. It gives a prediction on why fertilizers make plants grow more.
22Practice 1Amy wants to see how the amount of water in a pot affects the time that it takes for water to reach boiling point. She boils 100, 200, 300 ml of water. The time it takes for the water to reach boiling point increases as the amount of water increases.List the independent variable, dependent variable, and the needed controlsConstruct a possible Hypothesis
23Answer to Practice 1 Independent: Amount of Water Dependent: Boiling TimeControls: Type of water, heating apparatusConstructing a Hypothesis:If water amounts increase, then the time needed for water to reach the boiling point will also increase.
24Practice 2 What is the independent variable? Dependent variable? A study was done to see if leaves added to soil had an effect on tomato production. Tomato plants were grown in four large tubs. Each tub had the same kind and amount of soil. The 1st tub had 15 kg of rotted leaves mixed in the soil and 2nd had 10 kg. The 3rd tub had 5 kg and 4th tub had no leaves added. Each tub was kept in the sun and watered the same amount. The number of kilograms of tomatoes produced in each tub were recordedWhat is the independent variable? Dependent variable?What are the controls?Write a possible hypothesis for this experiment.
25Answers Practice 3 Independent Variable: Music being played Dependent Variable: Growth of plantHypothesis:If music is played to plant over a period of time, then the growth of the plant will increase.If music is played to plant over a period of time, then the growth of the plant will decrease.If music is played to plant over a period of time, then the growth of the plant will have no effect.
26Answer Practice 2 Independent: Amount of Leaves Dependent: Kilograms of tomatoes producedControls: Soil type and amount, Sun and water amount.Hypothesis:The larger amount of leaves added to soil will produce larger amounts of tomatoes.It is hypothesized that changing the amount of decomposing leaves in soil will not effect tomato growth.
27Practice 3James wondered if music had an effect on plant growth. He set up an experiment where 25 bean plants were placed in a chamber where music was played and 25 bean plants were placed in an identical chamber where music was not played. The growth chambers were kept at the same temp and all plants received the same amount of sunlight, fertilizer, and water. At the end of 2 weeks plant height was measured.What is the purpose?What is the independent variable? Dependent variable?Write a possible hypothesis for this experiment.
28Data Results of the experiment May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative
29DataMust be organizedCan be organized into charts, tables, or graphs
30DATA – observations and measurements made during a investigation. Qualitative Data - describes the situation and reaction in descriptive terms. For example, qualitative involves the senses including sight, taste, hearing, touch, and smell. This would include color and shapeQuantitative - includes those things that can be measured (length, time, mass, temp. etc.)Qualitative vs. Quantitative Data - LGEBRA/AD1/qualquant.htm/ad1/dataprac.htm
31Do we need both?A well-designed investigation must have some type of MEASUREABLE data, quantitative, but qualitative gives the measurable data more description and accuracy.Scientist use qualitative data to record observations that are difficult to measure or to give clarification to measured data.
32ConclusionThe answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment
33In order to verify the results, experiments must be retested.
34Solving a Problem 1)Identify a Problem 2) State Observations about the problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…)4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis5) Collect Data6) Form a Conclusion7) Retest
35OA #3A team of scientists wonder if the amount of Vitamin A given to laboratory white mice would affect the number of offspring born. An experiment is set up using the same species of white mice. Each mouse in the study gets the same amount of food, daily exercise, and is kept at the same temperature. Once group of mice gets extra vitamin A supplements added to their food. The number of offspring are counted and recorded.Which of the following is the best Hypothesis – Explain why the wrong ones are incorrect.Mice will have more offspring if they are given Vitamin A.If the mice are exposed to Vitamin A, then the amount of offspring will increase.If you give mice Vitamin A, then they will have more offspringI think the offspring number will increase if the mice are exposed to Vitamin A.
36ON YOUR OWN –A scientist wonders how acid might effect salamander’s hatching and growth. A scientist places 100 salamander eggs (Group X) in a pond that is exposed to acid rain. He places another 100 eggs (Group Y) in a pond where acid rain has not been detected. The conditions such as temperature, mineral content of the water, amount of sunlight are as similar as possible in both areas.Determine Independent Variable? (2pts each)What are some possible Dependent variables?Construct an Hypothesis for this experiment.
37Own your ownCandy wondered if caffeine would affect the breathing rate of goldfish. She went to the store and purchased 10 goldfish of approximately the same age and size, identical containers, food, and caffeine tablets. In one container she placed 5 goldfish with no caffeine. In the other container she placed 5 goldfish with caffeine tablets dissolved in the water. She observed the goldfish behavior and counted the operculum (plate that covers gills) movements in both containers of fish.Determine Independent Variable?What are some possible Dependent variables?Construct an Hypothesis for this experiment.
38MeasurementEnglish System – we’re the only industrialized nation that uses this system as it’s standard measurement. (pounds, ounces/cups, miles, Fahrenheit, etc.)History – was based off of body parts and commonly used objects.Drawbacks: complex converting and same names for different measurements such as ounce for both weight and liquid capacity.The English units of measurement have many drawbacks: the complexity of converting from one unit to another, the differences between American and British units, the use of the same name for different units (e.g., ounce for both weight and liquid capacity, quart and pint for both liquid and dry capacity), and the existence of three different systems of weights (avoirdupois, troy, and apothecaries'). Because of these disadvantages and because of the wide use of the much simpler metric system in most other parts of the world, there have been proposals to do away with the U.S. Customary System and replace it with the metric system.
39MeasurementMetric (International System of Units SI) universally used in scientific work, and widely used around the world for personal and commercial purposes.A standard set of prefixes in powers of ten may be used to derive larger and smaller units from the base units.
40Metric is used in science Mass – unit is grams (g), used for measure how much matter makes up an object.Tools used: triple beam balance, digital balance
41Volume of a liquid Unit – liter (L) (in class use mainly mL) Used to measure how much space a liquid takes up.Tools: graduated cylinders (most accurate), beakers, Flasks
42Solid VolumeSolid Volume – cm3 or m3is the unit, used for measuring the amount of space an object takes up.To find the volume of a solid measure the length, width, and height. Multiply all 3 numbers together.Measuring Irregular solids – use the water displacement method but you will still record the volume using cm3Ruler, graduated cylinder and water
43Length Unit – meters (m) Used for measuring the distance between two points.Tools - rulers
44Temperature Unit – Celsius, C Used to measure the movement of molecules in a substance. The more movement the higher the temperature.Tool: ThermometerCelsius is based on the freezing and boiling point of water. 0 degrees for freezing and 100 degrees for boiling.Fahrenheit is less accurate.
45OA: What Tool and unit would you use to measure the following OA: What Tool and unit would you use to measure the following?(Remember metric)How much matter in a calculator?How much space dr. pepper takes up in your drinking cup?How much space a textbook takes up in your book bag?The distance from Main Hall to Math Hall?How much space a paper clip takes up?The height of your desk?
46Answers to OA – keep in OA section How much matter in a calculator?use a balance and measure in gramsHow much space dr. pepper takes up in your drinking cup?use a graduated cylinder and measure in milliliters (mL)How much space a textbook takes up in your book bag?use a ruler, LxWxH, unit cm3The distance from Main Hall to Math Hall?ruler, metersHow much space a paper clip takes up?water displacement method, cm3The height of the your desk?ruler, centimeters (cm)
47Density The amount of matter in a given volume Mass (g)/ volume (mL3) = Density (g/mL3)Practice Problems:You have a rock with a volume of 15cm3 and a mass of 45 g. What is its density?You have a different rock with a volume of 30cm3 and a mass of 60g. What is its density?Which rock is heavier? Which rock is more dense?
48ApplicationA golden-colored cube is handed to you. The person wants you to buy it for $100, saying that is a gold nugget. You pull out your old geology text and look up gold in the mineral table, and read that its density is g/cm3. You measure the cube and find that it is 2 cm on each side, and weighs 40 g. What is its density? Is it gold? Should you buy it?