Presentation on theme: "7a. The Progressive Era The Populists and the Progressives."— Presentation transcript:
7a. The Progressive Era The Populists and the Progressives
Review of Gilded Age Large scale industrialization continued to affect governmental, political, and social organizations Urbanization and mass migration also added to the mix of cultures and issues
Characteristics of the Progressive Era 1.Large corporations came to dominate the U.S. economy aided by new technologies and methods. 2.The US continued its transition from a rural, agricultural society to an urban, industrial one 3.Even as economic growth continued, episodes of credit and market instability continued to cycle.
Major Impact on the Economy Henry Ford adapted the assembly line technology to building American automobiles. Make it possible for ordinary people to own cars Led the market place in his pay scale. Felt that fair pay would help him keep employees Was a success.
Populist Party of the Gilded Age Coalition of farmers, laborers, women, miners, African-Americans Wanted more of a voice in government Direct election of senators Government control of currency Graduated income tax Low-cost public financing Right of the workers to form unions Government ownership of railroads
Socialist Party Grows in Influence Leadership of Eugene V. Debs Offers an seemingly attractive alternative to capitalism. Debs is often arrested for participating in labor disputes. Campaigns for president while he is in prison.
Election of 1896 Populists and Democrats unite to support William Jennings Bryan (advocate of the Social Gospel) Republicans: William McKinley First modern election
The Campaign The Democratic candidate (Bryan) took his campaign on the road talking to as many people as he could Republican candidate (McKinley) conducted what was called a “front porch” campaign and relied on the Republican party faithful to campaign in his name. McKinley turns out to be a very active president and runs an efficient administration despite his “laid back” attitude.
McKinley Administration Important in the development of the United States as a world power. Declared war and fought the Spanish American War Known as an “imperialist” Expanded the reach of American influence Was assassinated in 1900 and Theodore Roosevelt became president.
Murder at the Fair Watch the video ‘MURDER AT THE FAIR” from the series “Ten Days that Unexpectedly Changed America”
Progressive Reformers Progressive reformers Late 1890s and early 20 th century From urban middle class and often female Worked to reform Social and political institutions At local, state and national levels Created New organizations Aimed at addressing social problems coming from an industrial society.
Muckrakers Journalists and novelists who wrote to expose the ugly side of industrialization and capitalism The Jungle by Upton Sinclair is the most famous. Exposed corruption and unhealthy conditions in the meat packing industry. Read by Theodore Roosevelt and resulted in the passage of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act. Lincoln Steffins wrote The Shame of the Cities Similar to Investigative Reporters of today.
State and Local Reforms Municipal Reduce the power of the political machines Public control of utilities Improve public transportation Raised property taxes City managers replace mayors State Public Utilities Tax Primary elections State regulation of railroads and public utilities Legislation to end child labor Workmen’s compensation laws
Federal Reforms 16 th Amendment: Federal Income Tax 17 th Amendment: Direct election of Senators Use of Primary Elections 18 th Amendment: Banned the manufacture, distribution and sales of alcoholic beverages. Muller v. Oregon: limited working hours for women
Individual Reformers Jane Addams Established Hull House Settlement House movement to assist immigrants Social Gospel at work Protestant churches organized inner city missions Gospel Mission Salvation Army Mary “Mother” Jones (83 years old) works for labor issues.
Women in the Progressive Era Women were dominate in this movement. New technologies for household task rewarded them with extra time to focus on areas of reform. Beginning of feminism Women’s Suffrage Disappointed that the 15 th amendment did not apply to them. Elizabeth Cady Stanton Birth control for women (Margaret Sanger) More opportunities for women to work
Debate between Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois Washington stressed vocational education for African Americans DuBois wanted immediate attention to equality through the training of the top percent of African Americans Formation of the NAACP with Ida B. Wells African Americans in the Progressive Era
The Progressive Presidents: Theodore Roosevelt Followed the assassination of William McKinley Youngest man ever to be elected president Domestic Policy called the “Square Deal” Anti-Trust Movement: Differentiated between the “good” and “bad” corporations Enforced the Sherman Antitrust Act Strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission Hepburn Act: Gave the ICC the power to examine railroads’ business records Pure Food and Drug Act Meat Inspection Act Conservation Movement to control destruction of land
William Howard Taft Pursued the antitrust activities of Roosevelt Broke up Standard Oil and American Tobacco companies Supported the 16 th Amendment/ replaced the tariff as the dominate source of funding for the government. Gravitated toward the more conservative wing of the Republicans Broke with Roosevelt over the issue of conservation.
The Election of 1912 Four candidates: William Howard Taft (Republican) Rely on individuals for change Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) Also Progressive Theodore Roosevelt (Bull Moose Party) Continue reform Eugene V. Debs (Socialist) Replace capitalism Battle between Wilson and Roosevelt of the role of the federal government in securing economic freedom.
The Issue Wilson’s New Freedom Federal government should strengthen antitrust laws Protect the right of workers to unionize Actively encourage small businesses Roosevelt’s New Nationalism Only the controlling and directing power of the government could restore the liberty of the oppressed. Heavy taxes on wealthy Federal regulation of industries (railroads, oil, and mining)
Woodrow Wilson First president to hold regular press conferences Delivered messages personally to Congress Underwood Tariff reduced duties Imposed a graduated income tax Clayton Anti-trust Act Protected labor unions Keating-Owen Act Outlawed child labor on goods involved in interstate trade Adamson Act 8 hour work day Warehouse Act extended credit to farmers Established the Federal Reserve Established the Federal Trade Commission
Lasting Impact of the Progressive Era Brought the attention of the American citizens to the inequities of the capitalist, democratic nation. Led to expanding the role of government in U.S. Ended the period of the weak president. The Progressive Era ends as World War I starts and America shifts from domestic issues to foreign problems.