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GCSE History: Paper 2 Outline of the Day 9.30-9.45am Overview of Paper 2 9.45-11.00am Section A, Topic 3 :USA 1918-29 & exam technique 11.00-11.15am.

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Presentation on theme: "GCSE History: Paper 2 Outline of the Day 9.30-9.45am Overview of Paper 2 9.45-11.00am Section A, Topic 3 :USA 1918-29 & exam technique 11.00-11.15am."— Presentation transcript:

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2 GCSE History: Paper 2

3 Outline of the Day am Overview of Paper am Section A, Topic 3 :USA & exam technique am BREAK pm Section B, Topic 6: USA pm LUNCH pm Section B, Topic 5: Nazi Germany, pm BREAK pm Exam Technique

4 Depth Study!!! 3 topics – 1 from section A and 2 from section B Section A The Roaring 20s: USA Section B Hitler’s Germany, & Depression & the New Deal: USA, Approx. 1.5mins/mark

5 Section A, Topic 3

6 NOT THE SAME AS PAPER 1!!!! Like in your controlled assessment!!!! Think CONTENT & PROVENANCE USESLIMITS CONTENT PROVENANCE

7 How and Why did the USA achieve prosperity in the 1920s? 1920US Senate rejected joining the LofN; Volstead Act brought in PROHIBITION 1921Herbert Hoover became President; Wall Street Crash 1922Republican Warren Harding became President; Immigration Quota Act 1923First “talkies” in the cinema 1924Fordney-McCumber Act 1927First solo flight across the Atlantic by Charles Lindbergh 1928Republican Calvin Coolidge became President 1929National Origins Act

8 How and Why did the USA achieve prosperity in the 1920s? 19201US Senate rejected joining the LofN; Volstead Act brought in PROHIBITION 19218Herbert Hoover became President; Wall Street Crash 19222Republican Warren Harding became President; Immigration Quota Act 19237First “talkies” in the cinema 19243Fordney-McCumber Act 19276First solo flight across the Atlantic by Charles Lindbergh 19284Republican Calvin Coolidge became President 19295National Origins Act

9 How was the USA governed? Who’s who? TASK: Use your textbook to explain how the USA was governed. Explain the role of the President; Senate; House of Representatives; The Federal System.

10 How was the USA governed? Who’s who?

11 What about the FWW? Britain, France, Russia Vs Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy (1915) = MAIN ALLIANCES USA joined 1917 Weapons Trench warfare

12 What impact did the FWW have on the USA? FWW MENMONEYATTITUDESPOLITICS

13 FWW & the USA Joined 1917 Conscripted 2.8 million men Fought in the Western Front 109,900 dead and missing US trade increased as they had no European rivals during the war The US industries did well supplying food and arms to Europe The US took over Germany’s chemical industry – Making dyes, plastics, fertilisers, etc. The interest from European loans allowed investors to invest in US industry

14 Using this source, what do we learn about American attitudes to the war by 1918?

15 The Treaty Of Versailles But the Senate decided not to accept the Treaty of Versailles and so didn’t join the League of Nations

16 The League of Nations Woodrow Wilson's great idea

17 "I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it." What did Woodrow Wilson want to happen at the end of the FWW? Do ALL Americans believe the same as him? Explain your answer. How many points? Formation of what?

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19 Immigration – what do these things mean? Laissez faire anarchists socialism WASPS Quota Melting pot

20 What does this image tell you about immigration to the US in the late 19 th /early 20 th Century?

21 Immigration - USA What was it?How did it restrict immigration? Literacy Test Emergency Quotas Act National Origins Act

22 Immigration - USA What was it?How did it restrict immigration? Literacy TestWriting test – check levels of understanding in English Northern & western immigrants Emergency Quotas Act 3% of all immigrants from that country who were resident in 1910 Northern and western immigrants favoured National Origins Act 2% of residents in 1890 European immigrants to 150,000 Limited the number from Italy Greece and Russia

23 The Economic Isolation 1922 Fordney McCumber Tariff Act All non American goods had to pay a huge tariff or entry tax This produced a huge domestic budgetary surplus Most Americans could only therefore buy American goods Could be raised or lowered by the US President – Harding and Coolidge = 32 times!

24 Consequences? Republicans = Harding President (61% vote) “normalcy” War not officially over until August 1921 Poor relations with Europe as the US had taken over German chemical companies and US businesses developed/used new materials e.g. plastics America never joined the League of Nations The Forney-McCumber tariff was used to protect US industry by putting high duties on many imports Restrictions on immigration. Before the US had an ‘open door’ policy but now restrictions were put on: 1.Total number was restricted from A quota system let in numbers of people according to their presence in the US population. This favoured WASPS 3.A literacy test was imposed in 1917 The US turned its back on Europe for nearly 20years as the Republicans were in charge

25 Prosperity in The 1920s “on the margin” Stock market boom Hollywood“Jazz Age”Flappers Continuation of Poverty Hire Purchase Consumer Boom Mass production

26 List the reasons for the boom in the American economy in the 1920s.

27 Why was there a boom in the 1920s? Boom Laissez Faire Tariffs Speculation First World War New Industrial Methods Confidence Advertising/Credit

28 Car Industry The Cycle of Prosperity!

29 Car Industry Mass productions & Standardisation lead to increased car sales. More Standardised parts are needed More jobs are created in other industries. SteelGlassRubberLeather More people with jobs means that they can afford to buy a car! Jobs in Diners, Motels & Gas Stations. More Oil is used. More roads are built. The Cycle of Prosperity!

30 The Model ‘T’ Ford 1.Name of the car? 2.Cost in 1909? 3.Cost in 1929? 4.How many cars per min? 5.Method of production invented by ford? 6.How many colours? 7.What was this called? 8.Give 2 other industries that boomed because of car production.

31 The Model ‘T’ Ford The attraction of the Model T Ford was that its price never increased. Costing $1200 in 1909, the price in 1928 was only $295. By 1929 Ford was producing more than one car per minute Car production used up 20% of America's steel, 80% of her rubber, 75% of her plate glass and 65% of her leather. By the end of the 1920s American cars used seven billion gallons of petrol a year. This helped to create jobs in the oil industry and made the oil state of Texas rich.

32 Car production used up 20% of America's steel, 80% of her rubber, 75% of her plate glass and 65% of her leather. By the end of the 1920s American cars used seven billion gallons of petrol a year. This helped to create jobs in the oil industry and made the oil state of Texas rich Assembly line adopted across other industries Car Production & Cycle of Prosperity

33 New industries… Electricity – companies controlled 72% or electricity Skyscrapers – Chrysler/Empire State Canned goods Synthetic materials

34 Advertising… Give 3 examples of new products developed during this time Give 2 methods of advertising used What does hire purchase mean?

35 Entertainment: Roaring 20s!

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37 Cinema 110million/ week by 1929 Hollywood – OSCAR Warner Brothers & MGM 1927 – The Jazz Singer = “TALKIE”

38 JAZZ – POPULAR MUSIC Duke Ellington & Louis Armstrong Cotton Club in NY

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42 ROARING?

43 Early 20 th Century Segregation between blacks and whites existed in the southern states Blacks had the worst jobs and houses Jim Crow Laws 1915 – KKK re-founded

44 The Origins of the KKK WHEN? WHO? WHAT? WHY? HOW?

45 KKK WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) 1915 William J. Simmons Jews, Roman Catholics, socialists, communists and anybody they identified as foreigners 1920s membership of the KKK grew from around 100,000 in 1920 to 5 million in 1925 Poor whites who felt that their jobs were threatened by black people and immigrants who were willing to work for lower wages “Klonverations” Victims were beaten, whipped, tarred and feathered or lynched State officials in Texas, Oklahoma, Indiana, Oregon and Maine. November 1925 Klan leader, David C. Stephenson, was found guilty of kidnapping and raping a secretary, Madge Oberholtzer. Corruption by other members such as the governor of Indiana and the mayor of Indianapolis, membership fell to around 30,000

46 What is the message of this cartoon?

47 1.What was the law that introduced prohibition? 2.What was prohibited? 3.What was a speak easy? 4.Name one group who supported prohibition. 5.Who was Al Capone?

48 What was ‘Prohibition’? A law called the Volstead Act introduced in the USA in January It banned the manufacture, sale and transport of alcohol. The federal government had the power to enforce this law. It theory the USA became ‘dry’. It has since become known as the ‘noble experiment’.

49 Why prohibition?

50 What does this source suggest about why prohibition was introduced?

51 Why was prohibition introduced? 1.It already existed in many states 2.Moral reasons 3.Campaigners like the Anti-Saloon League of America 4.The First World War

52 What were the effects of prohibition? 1.Speakeasies 2.Moonshine 3.Smuggling 4.Organised crime

53 What were the effects of prohibition? Everyday, hardworking Americans were turned in to criminals. Encouraged a growth in black market alcohol production (MOONSHINE) that could sometimes be dangerous. Illegal bars (SPEAKEASIES) started to emerge and where often owned or ran by gangsters. By 1930 there were an estimated 250,000 speakeasies across America, 32,000 of which were in New York. Speakeasies sold alcohol that was imported illegally from Canada or the West Indies by “bootleggers”. These illegal operations were organised by gangs of criminals – ORGANISED CRIME.

54 Al Capone By 1927 he was earning some $60 million a year from bootlegging. His gang was like a private army. He had 700 men under his control. He was responsible for over 500 murders. On 14 th February 1929, Capone’s men dressed as police officers murdered 7 members of a rival gang. This became known as the ‘Valentine’s Day Massacre.’

55 Explain the effects of prohibition on American society. (6marks) Level 1 (1-2)– Simple comment or one reason listed Level 2 (3-4) – Lists several effects or explains one in detail Level 3 (5-6) – Two effects in detail (do three to be on the safe side)

56 Explain the effects of prohibition on American society. (6marks) What were the effects? Everyday Americans = criminals Illegal alcohol production Illegal bars Importation of illegal alcohol Organised criminals – racketeering/ corruption/ violence

57 Why did Prohibition fail? Alcohol = popular and profitable Impossible to enforce the law – ,000 people imprisoned for alcohol related offences. 100 million people to monitor. 4,000 agents employed to stop bootlegging and close speakeasies – Elliot Ness. Of these agents 10% were sacked for taking bribes. 29,000km of coastline to control = Wall Street Crash. Other issues to focus on. December 1933 – “Let’s all go out and have a drink.”

58 The Roaring 20s - RECAP 1.(Rep) Government policy of laissez faire. 2.US industry had been boosted by the war. 3.Protectionism - import duties raised (1922). 4.Mass production: cars, radios, refrigerators. 5.Hire Purchase - people could buy on credit. There is massive consumer spending.Confidence!!

59 The Roaring 20s Farmers DID NOT prosper new machines produced more which lowered prices. The black population DID NOT prosper farmers laid them off, given low paid jobs and lived in slums – 10% lived in squalor Recent immigrants DID NOT prosper they were given low paid jobs and lived in slums. Workers in old industries DID NOT prosper (textiles, coal and mining) – 2million year olds worked in these industries for 11 hrs/day they were given low paid jobs and lived in slums. Prohibition saw a rise in crime: bootleggers & gangsters.

60 Really Roaring? With more money to spend people invested on the stock market. President Hoover’s aim: “a chicken in every pot and two cars in every garage”. BUT 71% of American families earned less than $2500 a year 2 million 14-15year old worked 11 hour days 1/3 of the country’s wealth was shared by 5% of the population American Industry was producing too many goods

61 Why did Wall Street Crash? 29th October 1929

62 Why did the Wall Street Crash happen? Some traditional industries and farming were not thriving. Many Americans were not sharing in the prosperity. There was an unequal distribution of wealth. Mass production was leading to over production. More and more American people started to invest in companies on the “stock market”. The Republican Government had a “laissez faire” attitude towards business and therefore did not regulate it. Banks were loaning people up to 90% of the money they needed to buy shares in companies. was known as “buying on the margin”. 19 th and 20 th October 3.5 million shares sold and stock prices fall. The unhealthy tariff policy of the USA meant that businesses were not selling things in foreign countries. 29 th October 1929 – 16million shares were sold and there was no one to buy them = CRASH! 24 th October - “Black Thursday” 13million shares sold. Big businesses borrowed heavily in order to expand. There was insufficient credit control. 23 rd October – 3 million shares sold in the last hour of trading People were holding on to stocks until their value increased then sold them quickly. This was known as speculation. Over production leads to businesses cutting back on production. The cut back on production results in an increase in unemployment.

63 What is speculation?

64 Speculation American industry booms, price of shares move up Investors sell their shares at higher prices and make huge profits Get Rich, Quick!! More people invest, pushing prices higher People buy “on the margin” RICH!!!! Let’s get RICH!!!!

65 Speculation

66 20 million shareholders by summer 1929 Prices reach an all time high Experts start to worry Profits Fall Car and Steel Production falls Sell People start to Sell

67 CRASH!

68 Crash! Sat 19th Oct million shares sold. Prices fall Sun 20th Oct - “Stocks driven down as wave of selling engulfs market”

69 Crash! Mon. 21st Oct - Over 6 million shares change hands. Prices fall then rise in the afternoon. There are still buyers on the market Tue 22nd Oct - Prices begin to rise

70 Crash Wed 23rd Oct 3 million shares sold in the last hour of trading Margin buyers told to find more cash ‘Black’ Thursday 13 million shares sold No buyers found Panic!!

71 Crash! Fri 25th Oct - Top bankers decide to support market Banking firms buy millions of shares for more than they are worth Sat 26th Oct - President Hoover “The fundamental business of the country, is on a sound and secure basis”

72 Crash! Mon. 28th Oct - Massive selling 3 million shares sold in the last hour of trading, 9 million sold in total Banks stop supporting prices Tuesday 29th Oct Tuesday 29th Oct 16 million shares sold No buyers found Ticker tape machines break due to pressure, many are ruined before they can act

73 What can we learn from this source about Prohibition? (4 marks)

74 Q14. How useful is Source M to help explain why prohibition was a difficult law to enforce? Source M: The National Gesture, 1924

75 USESLIMITS CONTENT PROVENANCE

76 Section B

77 Odd one out… 1.Ford, BMW, Chrysler, General Motors 2.Valentino, Fairbanks, Lindbergh, Bow 3.Break-dancing, Charleston, Tango, Black-bottom 4.Babe Ruth, Bobby Jones, Jack Dempsey, Charlie Chaplin 5.Bootlegging, Prohibition, racketeering, speakeasies 6.Laissez-faire, New Deal, chicken in every pot, rugged individualism 7.AAA, FBI, CCC, HOLC

78 What caused the WSC? WSC SpeculationFarming Old Industries Banking Fall in sale of consumer goods tariffs

79 Effects of Depression Collapse of business and industry Unemployment And it’s effects Failure of Hoover

80 Effects of the WSC

81 What impact did the WSC have…? Cities Banks/businesses = Bankrupt (659 banks in 1929/Bank of US 1930 = 400,000 people) Wages reduced (down 60% ) People spent less money High unemployment – 14million Loss of confidence Cleveland = 50% workers unemployed Toledo = 80% 238 – hospitalised with malnutrition/starvation (45 die) Countryside Farm prices fallen by $7billion in 1932 Cost of transporting animals more than the animals worth “Dust bowl” from overfarming Migration west to California to pick fruit Farmers did not prosper in 1920 earning 50% less than they did between 1900 and 1910

82 Effects of the Wall Street Crash

83 Hoover & the Depression Hoovervilles Hooverblankets Hooverstew Hooever Dam $4,000million for building projects Hawley-Smoot 1930 – 40%! Emergency Relief Act - $300million Reconstruction Finance Corporation - $1,500million to businesses

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85 Why did Roosevelt win the 1932 Presidential Election?

86 Roosevelt “active government” “New Deal” for the forgotten man Promised to help workers; farmers; immigrant and black workers Getting people back to work Travelled America – made speeches and met a lot of people 7 million more votes Hoover “prosperity is just around the corner” “do nothing president” Tax cuts to boost businesses in 1930 Relief Act - $2.1 billion to create jobs Charities = relief “rugged individualism” Bonus Marchers – June 1932; MacArthur;Tear Gas; Death of infants

87 Source G “Hoover happened to be in a bad spot the Depression came on, and there he was. If Jesus Christ had been there, he’d have had the same problem. It’s too bad for poor old Hoover that he happened to be there. This was a worldwide Depression. It wasn’t Hoover’s fault. In 1932, a Chinaman or a monkey could have been elected against him, no question about it.”

88 _______goods are sold. Demand ________ Companies ______ wages People start _______ their money Demand _____ _______ Companies cut costs by ______________ ________________ Even more people ______________ _______________ People lose their jobs. The Spiral Of Depression

89 Causes of the Depression Fewer goods are sold. Demand drops. In order to stay in business companies cut wages People lose their confidence & start saving their money Demand drops even further. Companies are forced to cut costs by laying people off Even more people Lose their confidence And spend less money People lose their jobs. The Spiral Of Depression

90 Alphabet Agencies AAA CCC PWA WPA CWA TVA HOLC SSA FERA NRA

91 What? Roosevelt’s New Deal Programs meant to help the country by getting the government involved in the economy 1. Relief - help people out in the short term 2. Recovery - get the economy back on its feet 3. Reform - keep this from everyhappening again Meant to do 3 things

92 Why? Bank Holiday - First Step Many banks had failed, wiping out families’ savings People lost confidence in the banks Depositors Congregate Outside Closed Bank

93 How? Bank Holiday - First Step Closed banks for four days to reorganize President explains in a “fireside chat” Confidence restored

94 In the first 100 days of his administration Roosevelt passes tons of legislation Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” Hundred Days The agencies he creates (like AAA) Alphabet Soup

95 Insurance for the $ you put in banks Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” FDIC - Federal Department Insurance Corp. Protected people’s savings Bank Employee Checks Depositor's Account

96 18-25 year old guys get jobs and send money home to their families Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps CCC workers in Lassen National Forest, California

97 Government pays farmers not to farm Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” AAA - Agricultural Adjustment Administration Meant to cause prices to rise and halt overproduction

98 Gave direct relief ($) to those who needed it Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” FERA - Federal Emergency Relief Admin. Beginnings of a welfare program

99 Taxed people working now to give payments to the elderly Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” Social Security Social Security Information Poster

100 Government runs a hydroelectric power plant Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” TVA - Tennessee Valley Authority Provides cheap power & fertilizer to the poor region Construction at Norris Dam, which was being built by the TVA on the Clinch River in Northeastern Tennessee

101 Recovery from depression Election of FDR “Fireside Chats” Banking Crisis New Deal and Alphabet Agencies TVA, NRP, WPA, CCC, AAA

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103 How successful was the New Deal? During the New Deal unemployment figures went from 14million to 6 million Support for Roosevelt increased. In the 1936 Presidential Election the Democrat control of US states went up to 46 Government spending and debt was very high When the Government cut back on spending unemployment increased to 10 million The output of businesses was 25% lower then it was in 1929 Republican Party members did not support the New Deal and thought that Roosevelt was acting like a dictator The Supreme Court ruled that parts of the New Deal went against the Constitution of the US – the NRA for example Roosevelt was accused of behaving like a dictator Governor Huey Long accused the Government of not doing enough – he wanted to introduce the “Share our Wealth” scheme. This would take money from rich Americans and share it out to the poor Republicans believed that the Democrats were encouraging people to be lazy Alphabet agencies like the TVA provided valuable resources and changes to the USA – the TVA stopped flooding; 93% of farms had electricity; diseases like malaria became easier to control The Alphabet Agencies created jobs and opportunities for people in the US

104 How successful was the New Deal? Success…Failure…

105 How successful was the New Deal? Success… Restored faith of the people back in the Government – “fireside chats” and Emergency Banking Act Helped people on a large scale NRA and Unions strengthened workers position in large industries (e.g. Ford) Created millions of jobs Stabilized the banking system Projects such as the TVA improved the standard of living in deprived parts of the USA Provided the USA with valuable resources such as roads and schools 200,000 black Americans benefited from organisations such as the CCC and also from slum clearance projects Indian Reorganisation Act 1934 provided money to help Native Americans buy and improve land Failure… Divided the USA – Roosevelt accused of being Communist Huey Long – “Share Our Wealth” Scheme believed that Roosevelt had not done enough (no one had over $3million) New Deal = too many codes and regulations High taxes discouraged people from working hard and gave money to people for doing nothing of doing unnecessary jobs Criticised for wasting money – WPA “boondoggles” Parts of the New Deal declared unconstitutional – NRA and AAA Many large industries still remained very powerful Strikes were often broken up by force New Deal never solved the underlying economic problems 6 million still unemployed in 1941 Only the entry in to WWII ended the problem of unemployment Black people were still discriminated against – paid lower wages Most of the New Deal agencies were for men Native Americans remained poor and excluded from society

106 How useful is this source to an historian to show opposition to the New Deal? (8marks)

107 USESLIMITS CONTENT (What is in the source?/Wha t is not in the source?) PROVENANC E (Who? When? Why?)

108 Section B – Nazi Germany

109 What impact did the Wall Street Crash have on Germany?

110 Source A – 1932 Nazi Poster saying “Hitler – Our Last Hope”

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113 1.What happens to the number of unemployed people in Germany from 1929 to 1933? 2.Look at source B. Which group produced this poster? 3.What does the poster depict (show)? 4.Why do you think this poster has been produced?

114 Weaknesses of Weimar?

115 Weimar Gov Article 48PRCoalition Decision making/Depression Chancellor/President

116 How did these things help Hitler? MAY 1928SEPT. 1930JULY 1932NOV. 1932MARCH 1933 Communists Socialists Centre Party Nationalists Nazis Other Political Parties

117 Who were the Nazi Party?

118 Hitler and the National Socialist Party  1913 – moved to Germany  Joined the German Army and fought in WWI  Involved in politics at the end of WWI  Continued working for the army after the war  Asked to spy on a small political party, the German Worker’s Party  Found that it held views similar to his own, so he joined it

119 Hitler and the National Socialist Party  Soon Hitler took over the leadership  Changed name to National Socialist German Worker’s Party  Nazi is an acronym for the party in German  Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP, 'Nazi' Party

120 Hitler and the National Socialist Party  Aims  End the agreements of the Treaty of Versailles  Redraw Germany’s borders to include all German people  Only Germans could be citizens of Germany  No Jewish people could be members of this new Germany  Additional territories (colonies) to feed and settle surplus population  The state to take over major industries

121 How did Hitler establish control? control forcesupportcompromiselegal

122 Reichstag Fire When? Where? What? Who?

123 Reichstag Fire 4000 Communist officials and anti-Nazis arrested. “Decree for the Protection of the People and the State” 5 th March 1933 = election = Nazi Party win 288 seats (44%)

124 The Enabling Law Who? When? What? Why? How EFFECT =

125 The Enabling Law Who? = Introduced by Hitler and the Nazi Party, with the help of the Nationalist Party. When? = 23 rd March What? = Change the Constitution of Germany. Why? = To gain control of Germany. How? = ban 81 Communist members of Reichstag, Social Democrats threatened by SA, other parties pressured. EFFECT = gave Hitler the power to pas any law without consulting the Reichstag. Germany became a one- party state.

126 The Removal of Opposition June 1933 = Social Democrats banned July 1933 = Law against the Formation of New Parties. Trade Unions abolished. Leaders of political parties and trade unions arrested and put in concentration camps. Nazi officials, judges, ministers and civil servants.

127 Night of the Long Knives

128 SA = threat to his control. Rohm = more socialist and control of German army. Rohm/Army? 30 th June 1934 = SS arrest SA. Von Schleicher murdered.

129 Death of Hindenburg Only person higher than Hitler in Germany= Hindenburg. 2 nd August 1933 = Hindenburg died. Hitler declared himself President and Chancellor = Fuhrer and Reich Chancellor. German army = loyalty to Hitler.

130 Nazis increase seats from 12 to 107 and gain 6 million votes in national polling to emerge as the second largest party in Germany. Schleicher leaves office General Kurt von Schleicher cabinet Reichstag elections: Nazi party loses votes Reichstag elections: Nazi party becomes the largest party. Von Papen becomes Chancellor of Germany Hindenburg reelected to Reichspresident with over 40% of the vote. Hitler gains 37% and the communist candidate Thälmann gains 10.2% President Hindenburg appoints Hitler chancellor of a Nazi-DNVP coalition Jan 30, 1933 Jan 28, 1933 Dec 3, 1932 Nov 6, 1932 Jul 31, 1932 Jun 1, 1932 Apr 10, 1932 Sep

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133 Methods of Control propaganda education youthchurch SS/Gestapo

134 Hitler Youth 1933 its membership stood at 100, , it became all but compulsory to join the Hitler Youth 1936, the figure stood at 4 million members Hitler Youth catered for 10 to 18 year olds Boys at 10, joined the Deutsches Jungvolk (German Young People) until the age of 13 Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) until the age of 18. Activities included "military athletics" (Wehrsport); marching, bayonet drill, grenade throwing, trench digging, map reading, gas defence, use of dugouts, how to get under barbed wire and pistol shooting. Girls, at the age of 10, joined the Jungmadelbund (League of Young Girls) Age of 14 transferred to the Bund Deutscher Madel (League of German Girls) Girls had to be able to run 60 metres in 14 seconds, throw a ball 12 metres, complete a 2 hour march, swim 100 metres and know how to make a bed.

135 Women in Nazi Germany Mothers 1933 was the Law for the Encouragement of Marriage. 800,000 newly weds took up this offer. T% of the loan need not be paid back. Four children meant that the entire loan was cleared. "Take hold of kettle, broom and pan, Then you’ll surely get a man! Shop and office leave alone, Your true life work lies at home.“ 1943, a law was discussed among Nazi leaders that all women - married or single - should have 4 children and that the fathers of these children had to be "racially pure". Weimar Germany there had been 100,000 female teachers, 3000 female doctors and 13,000 female musicians a law was passed which meant women had to do a "Duty Year". This meant that they could work 'patriotically' in a factory etc. to help the Nazi's "Economic Miracle". Women were not expected to wear make-up or trousers. The dyeing of hair was not allowed nor were perms. Only flat shoes were expected to be worn. Women were discouraged from slimming as this was considered bad for child birth. Motherhood Cross Gold = 8 children; silver was for 6 children and bronze was for 4 children Lebensborn’s which were buildings where selected unmarried women could go to get pregnant by a "racially pure" SS man.

136 Church in Nazi Germany 1933 – Concordat Muller supported Hitler and in 1933 he was given the title of "Reich Bishop". Those who opposed the views of Muller were called the "Congressional Church". This was led by Martin Niemoller. Gestapo who arrested him for opposing Hitler. Niemoller was sent to a concentration camp for 7 years 1936, the Reich Church was created. This did not have the Christian cross as its symbol but the swastika. The Bible was replaced by "Mein Kampf" which was placed on the altar. By it was a sword. Only invited Nazis were allowed to give sermons in a Reich Church.

137 Hitler and the National Socialist Party  The SA (or brownshirts)  Private army of the Nazi Party  Used terror against his opponents  The SS (or blackshirts)  Hitler’s personal bodyguard  Also to make sure party members stay loyal

138 Hitler and the National Socialist Party  The Gestapo (secret police)  Spied on people and persecuted people who did not follow party line  The Hitler Youth  Recruited youths by telling them that to be patriotic to their country, they had to support the Nazis Hitler Youth Organisation Flag

139 Racial Persecution 1.What was the Nuremburg Law? 2.How did it affect Jews in Germany? 3.What does Kristallnacht mean? 4.When did it Kristallnacht happen? 5.Why did Kirstallnacht happen? 6.What were the results of Kristallnacht? 7.Which other groups did the Nazis target? 8.When, why and who was compulsory sterilisation introduced?

140 Paper 2: Comprehension and inference from a source. Source E Education under the Nazis The Nazis used their control over teachers to influence what children learned at school. Many teachers were already very nationalistic and accepted that they should teach Nazi ideas. Those who did not were usually sacked. Many teachers attended teachers’ camps which concentrated on indoctrination and physical training. Ninety-seven per cent of teachers joined the Nazi Teacher’s Association. From Germany by G. Lacey and K.Shephard, How useful is source E in explaining how the Nazi Party gained support of the people?

141 USESLimits Content Provenance

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143 a) What does Source A suggest about why the USA did not join the League of Nations? (4marks) Response A Source E suggests that Americans did not like immigrants and did not want any in their country. It also says that there was a group called WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) who wanted the Quota System to happen, the quota system stopped some immigrants from entering America.

144 Mark Scheme – 4 mark question Level 1 – copies from the source (1-2) Level 2 – explains what the source means (3-4)

145 Response A Source E suggests that Americans did not like immigrants and did not want any in their country. It also says that there was a group called WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) who wanted the Quota System to happen, the quota system stopped some immigrants from entering America.

146 Response B Source J tells you that immigration is bad as lots of southern and eastern europeans where let in the country and seen as anarchists. The Quota system was a victory for the WASPs (White Anglo Saxon Protestants) as the amount of southern and eastern europeans let in was limited reducing the amount of undesirables. After 1921 most immigrants where white and protestant as the quota system allowed many immigrants from eastern europe to enter the USA.

147 Mark Scheme – 4 mark question Level 1 – copies from the source (1-2) Level 2 – explains what the source means (3-4)

148 Response B Source J tells you that immigration is bad as lots of southern and eastern europeans where let in the country and seen as anarchists. The Quota system was a victory for the WASPs (White Anglo Saxon Protestants) as the amount of southern and eastern europeans let in was limited reducing the amount of undesirables. After 1921 most immigrants where white and protestant as the quota system allowed many immigrants from eastern europe to enter the USA.

149 Explain the consequences of prohibition. (6marks) Some effects of prohibition for American’s in the 1920s was banned alcohol as alcohol was banned in the 1920s but this didn’t solve the problem infact it made it worse as people set up businesses such as speakeasies, bootlegging and moonshine (illegal alcohol). This was a problem for business because people were coming in to work hungover so they couldn’t get the job done. Secondly, people spent all there money on alcohol so they couldn’t afford to buy other products so businesses lost profit.

150 March scheme – 6 marks Level 1 – simple statement (1-2) Level 2 – Lists the consequences or describes one in detail (3-4) Level 3 – 2 consequences explained; both must be in detail to gain top of the level (5-6)

151 Response A Some effects of prohibition for American’s in the 1920s was banned alcohol as alcohol was banned in the 1920s but this didn’t solve the problem infact it made it worse as people set up businesses such as speakeasies, bootlegging and moonshine (illegal alcohol). This was a problem for business because people were coming in to work hungover so they couldn’t get the job done. Secondly, people spent all there money on alcohol so they couldn’t afford to buy other products so businesses lost profit.

152 Response B Prohibition had many consequences one of these where speakeasies. Speakeasies where illegal bars that sold drink illegally to the public. Speakeasies where usually in back alleys or peoples basements. Speakeasies where very popular and there was 32,000 speakeasies in New York alone. This was a consequence as it meant that even though alcohol above 0.5% was banned it was still being sold on mass. Another consequence is moonshine, where alcohol was made cheaply. Moonshine was where people manufactured alcohol in there home, or somewhere else cheaply and in an unhealthy way. Moonshine was not safe to drink as it could cause blindness if too much was drank. Moonshine was a consequence as people where manufacturing alcohol above the legal limit and selling it and moonshine was causing health problems in the public. Also gang warfare was a consequence as many gangs earned money by illegally smuggling and selling alcohol and if a gang proved competition then this could start a gang war. Gang warfare was a common thing to happen in America as gangs where in most cities. An example of gang warfare was the St. Valentine’s Day massacre on the 14 th February 1929 where 3 members of Al Capone’s gang “The Outfit” shot and killed 7 members of the Bugs Moran Gang. This is a consequence because prohibition banned alcohol over a certain volume and this caused competition in gangs to earn money, then leading to violence.

153 March scheme – 6 marks Level 1 – simple statement (1-2) Level 2 – Lists the consequences or describes one in detail (3-4) Level 3 – 2 consequences explained; both must be in detail to gain top of the level (5-6)

154 Response B Prohibition had many consequences one of these where speakeasies. Speakeasies where illegal bars that sold drink illegally to the public. Speakeasies where usually in back alleys or peoples basements. Speakeasies where very popular and there was 32,000 speakeasies in New York alone. This was a consequence as it meant that even though alcohol above 0.5% was banned it was still being sold on mass. Another consequence is moonshine, where alcohol was made cheaply. Moonshine was where people manufactured alcohol in there home, or somewhere else cheaply and in an unhealthy way. Moonshine was not safe to drink as it could cause blindness if too much was drank. Moonshine was a consequence as people where manufacturing alcohol above the legal limit and selling it and moonshine was causing health problems in the public. Also gang warfare was a consequence as many gangs earned money by illegally smuggling and selling alcohol and if a gang proved competition then this could start a gang war. Gang warfare was a common thing to happen in America as gangs where in most cities. An example of gang warfare was the St. Valentine’s Day massacre on the 14 th February 1929 where 3 members of Al Capone’s gang “The Outfit” shot and killed 7 members of the Bugs Moran Gang. This is a consequence because prohibition banned alcohol over a certain volume and this caused competition in gangs to earn money, then leading to violence.

155 How useful is Source M for studying reasons why the USA did not join the League of Nations in 1919? Use source M and your own knowledge to explain your answer. (10marks) Response A Source M is quite useful to show the attitudes of Americans in 1919 towards USA joining the League of Nations because it says/shows that the Republicans do not wan to join the LofN, also it says it will destroy the USA by getting involved in other problems. It is also useful because it is wrote in the 1919 when it was happening, also because the person who wrote this was a person who wrote this was a person of the government. Secondly it has limits because Wilson was the President at the time and he was a Deomcrat and he was opposite to a lot of people also he was on both sides of the argument so he couldn’t choose, and there was a vote soon so he could choose to be in and then there would be a knew president who didn’t want to be in it. Also this was a speech and was his opinion so it isn’t facts it just one persons opinion.

156 Mark Scheme – 10 marks Level 1 – uses the source to make comments about joining the League (1-2) Level 2 – gives some simple explanations (3-4) Level 3 – Looks at the uses or limits using their own knowledge or information from the source (5-7) Level 4 – Looks at uses or limits of the source using the source and their own knowledge (8- 10)

157 Response A Source M is quite useful to show the attitudes of Americans in 1919 towards USA joining the League of Nations because it says/shows that the Republicans do not want to join the LofN, also it says it will destroy the USA by getting involved in other problems. It is also useful because it is wrote in the 1919 when it was happening, also because the person who wrote this was a person who wrote this was a person of the government. Secondly it has limits because Wilson was the President at the time and he was a Democrat and he was opposite to a lot of people also he was on both sides of the argument so he couldn’t choose, and there was a vote soon so he could choose to be in and then there would be a knew president who didn’t want to be in it. Also this was a speech and was his opinion so it isn’t facts it just one persons opinion.


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