Presentation on theme: "Title: Evolution of Socialism"— Presentation transcript:
1Aim: What Philosophical changes to the economy did the Industrial Revolution help to spur on? Title: Evolution of SocialismDo Now: Write down what you know about the Industrial Revolution and how it affected both employers and their workers.Focus on the conflict that arose between thetwo classes: Bourgeoisie v. Proletariats.
2Key things to keep in mind: Industrial RevolutionUnfair treatmentUnlivable/working conditionsNo representation = no unionsClass distinctions: Bourgeoisie (middle class/rich/bosses/factory owners) vs. Proletariats (working class, poor, etc.) = Rich got richer, while the poor got….. well, you get the point.The rich utilized laissez-faire capitalism to their great advantage
4Today’s Focus:We will examine how the ideas of social reform emerged as a result of the uneven distribution of wealth caused by the Industrial Revolution.
5OBJECTIVE IQuietly please (Shhh!!!): Carefully review/actively read the handout – Yes, MARK IT UP!!!Comparing & contrasting varying economic & related political systems: Capitalism vs. Socialism vs. Communism.
6OBJECTIVE I (continued) Transfer the graphic organizers pictured below onto a blank piece of paper.Complete reading on capitalism, socialism, and communism and complete the organizer.CharacteristicsCapitalismSocialismCommunismIs ownership private or public?How is society organized?Social ObjectivesEconomic ObjectivesPolitical System
8Ideology Rock-Paper-Scissors Directions/RulesFind a partnerPlay 3 rounds of rock-paper-scissors (1 round=best out of three shoots)At the end each round, the loser must give the winner one piece of their candyOdds and EndsIn game, candy=money and winning=hard work (therefore, the harder your work the more money you receive and vise versa)
9Ideology Rock-Paper-Scissors What economic system was enacted at the beginning of the game before you began playing? What are some problems that may arise from this system?What economic ideology was enacted while playing the game? What problems may arise from this system?Which economic ideology was represented as I redistributed the candy? What problems may arise from this system?Why did these economic/political ideologies emerge after the Industrial Revolution (think class tensions)?
10Political and Economic Ideologies CapitalismEconomic system in which money is invested in business ventures with the goal of making a profit, economic liberty guarantees economic progressADAM SMITH Father of modern capitalism
11Political and Economic Ideologies SocialismFactors of production are owned by public and operate for the welfare of allGovernment actively plans economyOther socialist ideas includeBenthamUTILITARIANSIM judge ideas, institutions and actions on the basis of their utility or usefulnessGovernment should provide the greatest good for the greatest amount of people
12Political and Economic Ideologies Karl MarxBelieved that economic forces controlled societyWrote the Communist Manifesto (1848) calling for “workers of the world unite” and overthrow the “bourgeoisie”Radical socialism called MarxistGap between rich and poor too wide and will widenMore control over economy will reduce class conflict
14Marxism Factories drive small artisans out of business Small # of manufacturers to control wealthLarge PROTELTARIAT would revolt & seize factories
15Marxism Proletariats would produce what was NEEDED Workers would share profitsCreation of economic equality
16MarxismWorkers would control gov’t in “Dictatorship of the Proletariat”Create cooperative living and educationThe state/government would wither away = classless society
17Political and Economic Ideologies Karl Marx (cont.)Marx’s final phase would becomeCOMMUNISMComplete form of socialism in which the means of production owned by the peopleNo private propertyClassless societyAll goods and services shared equally
18Political and Economic Ideologies Karl Marx (cont.)Marx’s ideas of communism didn’t have much appeal until 20th centuryLenin’s RussiaMao’s ChinaHo Chi Minh’s VietnamCastro’s CubaMost of Marx’s predictions never occurred proving that society is not just controlled by economic forces but also by religion, nationalism and political forces
19Use the information from reading and your chart above to accurately place the economic systems on the Economic Spectrum below….System: ___________Description: _______________System: ______________Description:______________
20OBJECTIVE 1 What are the means of production? What is Socialism? List and then examine some of the primary characteristics of Socialism?What led socialists and other groups to believe that government should control the means of production?
21Capital and equipment used to produce and exchange goods Man’s/individual greed/corruption/unfair treatment towards the “common man”, etc.
22SocialismSocialists – viewed the capitalist system as inherently wrongBelief that capitalism is designed to create poverty and poor working conditions because of its end goal of earning maximum profits for investorsSocialism – government owns the means of productionBelief that if the government (“the people”) owns the means of production, these factories and industries will function in the public (as opposed to private) interest
23OBJECTIVE III 1. Let’s try to analyze the philosophy and influences of Robert Owen, Karl Marx, and Friedrich Engels, see pp Create a three-column chart (similar to the one shown) - Below, list and then examine their philosophy & influences.Social/economical philosophersPhilosophyInfluencesKarl MarxRobert OwenFriedrich Engels
24Early Socialist Movement First socialists were UtopiansStrove to create a fair and just systemCommunity divided tasks and rewards equitablyRobert OwenCharles FourierClaude Saint-SimonLouis Blanc
25Robert Owen (1771-1858) Utopian socialist Owned a textile factory in New Lanark, ScotlandSet up a model community in New Harmony, IndianaDecreased working hoursImproved working conditions and employee housingShared management and profits with employeesProved that a socialist-based company could be profitable
26Karl Marx (1818-1883) German socialist (communist) philosopher Forced to leave Prussia for articles attacking the Prussian governmentRelocated to France where he was considered too radicalWrote Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels (1848)Relocated to England where he lived out the rest of his lifeWrote Das Kapital – the “bible” of socialism (1867)“Religion is the opiate of the people.”Belief that religion is designed to keep people submissive to those in power by promising them that their reward is in heaven
27OBJECTIVE IV1. What do you know about communism? (reference HW #13) - Express your opinions to this economical system. - Please justify your points with hard found facts, examples, and evidence.
28Marxism – Communism Economic Interpretation of History Class Struggle Economic changes lead to historical changes.Historically, the wealthy classes have held all power.Economic Interpretation of HistoryHistory has been a struggle between the rich and the poor.In the Industrial Revolution, the struggle is between the capitalists (owners of the means of production) and the proletariat (workers).Class StruggleWorkers produce all wealth but receive only enough to survive.“Surplus value” (profit) of the workers’ labor goes to the capitalists.Surplus ValueIndustrial wealth leads to the concentration of wealth among fewer and fewer capitalists, while the living and working conditions of the proletariat grow worse.The proletariat will eventually rebel and create a socialist state.Inevitability of SocialismNote: Anti-Marxists might argue that Marx has been proven wrong because working conditions have improved. Marxists might argue that the struggle of the proletariat is not yet over. Still others might argue that Marx was right in some respects and wrong in others; that is, no truly socialist state has ever been created, but governments have established many socialist-type reforms and institutions. An interesting class activity is to have students create two lists—one listing the industries the federal government does control, and another listing those businesses which remain privately owned. This discussion should get interesting once the class starts discussing the federal government’s involvement with industries such as banking and automobile manufacturing following the recession of late 2008.Note: Marx referred to himself as a “communist” to separate himself from Utopian socialists.
29Communism Rationale Goals Overthrow the bourgeois “supremacy” Abolition (get rid of) private propertyRationaleWorking class works to produce capital (money) which allows bourgeois to acquire more personal property and therefore control working class
30Socialist and Communist Political Parties First InternationalFounded by Marx and others in 1864International Workingmen’s AssociationUrged proletariat to overthrow capitalism worldwideBroke apart in 1873Second InternationalFounded in 1889National parties more concerned with the politics of their respective nationsBroke apart during World War IRussian Revolution (1917)Communists – known as Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, came to power following the overthrow of the tsarLeft and right wingsSocialists – right wingers – advocated socialist reforms through votingCommunists – left wingers – advocated socialist reforms through revolutionPolitical parties of both types have existed throughout Europe, the United States, and all over the world since around the turn of the last centuryNote: The modern political meanings of “socialism” and “communism” vary somewhat from their historical meanings. An interesting student activity is to have students locate the political platforms of the Socialist and Communist parties of the United States, comparing and contrasting them.
31OBJECTIVE V Draw the following web diagram: Complete the diagram by identifying the competing ideas that arose out of Marxism and their characteristics.Students’ diagrams should include information that identifies the roles of both people and government.
33Review QuestionsExplain Marxism in terms of the economic interpretation of history, class struggle, surplus value, and the inevitability of socialism.Most modern industrialized nations possess some degree of socialism. Comparing the United States to countries such as China, France, and Great Britain, should the United States increase or decrease its number and scope of social programs and government ownership of industry? Why or why not?