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The Unification of Germany Transforming the Balance of power.

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Presentation on theme: "The Unification of Germany Transforming the Balance of power."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Unification of Germany Transforming the Balance of power

2 Zollverein Zollverein – tariff free zone 1818 – Prussia abolished internal tariff barriers to allow for the freer movement of goods  Lowered administrative costs of government  Improved movement of goods within the state  Lowered import tariffs on some foreign products Good for farmers Did not protect manufacturers Austria removed tariff barriers within the western half of the empire but not the whole empire

3 1819 – 1828 – Prussia moved to include the enclave states within the Prussian state Prussia will not actively include Austria 1820 – South German States began to create their own customs union  Bavaria & Wurttemberg – did not involve Prussia 1831 – Prussian trade treaty with Holland to open the Lower Rhine River to Prussian trade Hesse-Cassel joined Prussian trade union – connected east and west Prussia 1833 – Prussia joined with the Southern German Customs Union 1834 – the German Customs Union Prussian trade increased dramatically

4 IB Objective: European diplomacy and the changing balance of power after 1870

5 What is a nation state? Geographic boundary – territory Sense of common culture and social life Common history Sense of community

6 Two phases of the rise of the Nation-State National integration – expansion and admission of new territory – war, annexation, plebiscite Institution building – creation of new govt. for new nation state

7 Issues prior to unification Conservatism – desire to keep society and political power structure the same – Junkers (landed aristocracy) dominant class in Prussian society and military Liberalism – desire to increase the political rights of the common citizen

8 Industrialization – German states became leading industrial power in Europe – economic ties fostered a degree of unity among the German states – rise of the middle class and industrial owners Socialism – desire to increase the rights, power, and wealth of the working person

9 The German Confederation – loose union of independent German states Nationalism – loyalty to a common nation – unification of Italy provided example Prussia vs. Austria – who will lead the movement in Germany and become the dominant state

10 Key Players William I King of Prussia Hohenzollern family

11 Otto von Bismarck – “the Iron Chancellor” Prime Minister of Prussia (1862) Solve military budget issue Created unified Germany based on conservatism Followed Realpolitik

12 Military issue Prussian king and conservatives wanted to increase size of military and modernize weapons Liberals in parliament refused to support military increase and taxation increase

13 Solution to military budget Bismarck ruled without Parliament’s consent for four years Government collected taxes without Parliament’s consent – people paid anyway (duty to state) Army reorganized, retrained and reequipped with tax money – military will play leading role in unification

14 Restricted freedom of press, speech on political issues, did not confirm the election of progressive mayors to Prussian cities – political war against liberalism Prussia will grow “by Blood and Iron” and not liberalism.

15 Creation of Prussian Dominance Prussia and Russia 1863 – Polish revolt against Russia Bismarck (Prussia) sided with Russia Prussia mobilized troops on Eastern border Austria could not side with Russia because of larger Polish population

16 Prussia vs. Denmark (1864) Schleswig and Holstein – two duchies ruled by Denmark but not official part of kingdom – large German populations 1863 – Denmark attempts to annex Schleswig Bismarck issued ultimatum to Denmark to not annex Schleswig – Denmark rejected Prussia and Austria declare war

17 Prussia and Austria defeated Denmark Treaty of Vienna (1864) – ended war  Prussia – Schleswig and port city of Kiel  Austria – Holstein Created tension between Austria and Prussia – Bismarck viewed war as inevitable

18 The Isolation of Austria Deal with France (Napoleon III) – France receive territory in Rhineland if neutral in Austria-Prussia war Alliance with Italy – Italy attacks Austria in Austria-Prussia war – Italy receives Venetia

19 Austro-Prussian War (1866) – the Seven Weeks War Prussia sent troops into Holstein and leaves the German Confederation Austria and German Confederation send troops to oppose Prussia Prussia won with assistance of Italy

20 Treaty of Prague (1866) – ended war German Confederation dissolved Prussia annexed Schleswig and Holstein, Hanover, Frankfurt North German Confederation created – controlled by Prussia – Austria left out  Parliament – two houses – lower house elected by universal male suffrage  William I – president  Bismarck – chancellor

21 Economic Alliance with Southern German states (not Austria) – created free trade and extension of railroads  Southern German states not formally organized Southern German states militarily aligned with the North German Confederation Prussian parliament supported Bismarck and military budgets after defeat of Austria By passing universal male suffrage – socialists support Bismarck


23 Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) France vs. Prussia Spain invited Hohenzollern family member (Leopold of Hohenzollern) to rule – Prussia supported invitation France opposed – fear of being politically surrounded – declared war on Prussia France = no allies Prussia defeated France

24 Proclamation of German Empire – “The Second Reich”  Discuss structure of govt. France – the Palace of Versailles – Hall of Mirrors William I became Emperor William I of Germany – emperor = hereditary German princes proclaim allegiance to William I and “give” their territory to the new German empire

25 Treaty of Frankfurt (1871) Germany annexed French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine  Iron Ore  Coal  Textile industries France pay Prussia $5 billion francs


27 Germany under Bismarck Industrial leader in manufactured goods outproducing France and England – challenged England’s role in the global economy Leader in iron, steel and coal output Instituted govt. insurance program for workers – sickness, accident, incapacity in old age.

28 Implemented protective economic tariffs (1879)  Protected agriculture (Junkers) from Russian and US wheat imports  Supported by industrialists wanting to protect German industrial market from foreign competition Govt increased military expenditures – helped industrialists

29 Question of Catholicism Prussia and Northern German states = protestant Southern German states = Catholic Loyalty of Catholic citizens came into question – will they support Germany or the Catholic church

30 Kulturkampf “the Battle for Modern Civilization” Effort to reduce the influence of the Catholic Church esp. in Southern Germany  Laws restricted Catholic worship and Catholic education  Catholic bishops and clergy were arrested or expelled from Germany  Laws restricting Catholic publications Catholics created the Center Party to represent Catholic political interests  Developed into strong oppositional party in the Reichstag

31 Decided to stop Kulturkampf campaign Needed support of Centre party against the socialist movement of the working class

32 German Social Democratic Party Founded in 1875 Workers party  Represented threat to new government – demanded social change 1878-1890 - Bismarck passed anti- socialist laws – no socialist meetings or newspapers

33 Bismarck passed social legislation that supported the workers and the old

34 Effects of Unified Germany: Germany = Great Power  Politically – influence among Eur. countries  Economically – industrial leader  Militarily – used military to expand Threat to England, France, Austria, Russia – other Great Powers Upsets traditional balance of power  Countries have to account for Germany

35 Close: Provide examples of both domestic and foreign policy that reflect Bismarck’s philosophy of Realpolitik. Be able to explain how or why the examples reflect Realpolitik.

36 Explain how Bismarck’s policies reflect or support the following philosophies:  Conservatism  Liberalism  Socialism  Industrialism  Nationalism

37 Removal of Bismarck William I died in 1888 Frederick III died after three months William II became Kaiser of Germany 1890 – Bismarck ordered to resign because of disputes over foreign and social policy Germany adopts a “new course” (p.598)

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