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Chapter 30: The Great Depression and the Authoritarian Response AP World History.

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1 Chapter 30: The Great Depression and the Authoritarian Response AP World History

2 The Great Depression Causes: –War-induced inflation in Germany –Farmers around the world face overproduction Many industries faced overproduction obstacles in the post-WWI world –Increased competition on the world market –Increased urbanization –Loans to repay loans… –Production exceeded demand in many colonial economies

3 The Great Depression Governments were unable to quell the tide of economic mismanagement –Protectionism worsens crises October, 1929: New York Stock Market Crash –Turns worldwide…quickly –Economies were based on speculation –Banks, creditors FAIL

4 The Great Depression Investment recedes –Industrial production falls Capital goods, then consumer goods –Falling employment –Lower wages Underemployed and underpaid workers couldn ’ t buy goods whose production would stimulate job creation! The depression…FED ITSELF!

5 The Great Depression Soviet Union is untouched due to its developing SOCIALISM. –Soviet workers are put under tremendous hardship as they industrialize without foreign capital.

6 The Great Depression Latin America –Stimulate new kinds of political action Unable to stop depression, but set forth new stage of political evolution Japan –Increased western suspicion –Promoted expansionism to Asian markets –Radical social and political experiments

7 The Great Depression Western Governments fumble the political/economic response –Increased protectionism Rising tariffs –Governments CUT spending –Confidence in governments/political processes deteriorates People turn to radical ideals Communism support increases worldwide Increased class conflicts, political battles between left and right.

8 The Great Depression TWO political choices… –An incapacitated parliamentary system Or –The overturning of a parliamentary system French politics is thrown into disarray with the election of the POPULAR FRONT in 1936 (coalition of liberal, socialist, communists). –Conservatives stonewall radical social change

9 The Great Depression US History reminder: The New Deal –Franklin Delano Roosevelt ’ s plan to bring rapid growth to the American Government. Didn ’ t solve the depression, but restored faith in the political process. America doesn ’ t fall into political paralysis

10 Nazism/Fascism Post WWI Germany…a breeding ground for fascism –The Weimar Republic (German Govn ’ t after WWI) was unable to deal with Versailles Treaty terms –Parliamentary democracy was seen as weak, corrupt, and full of class conflict –Germans wanted a strong state ruled by a powerful leader who could revive Germany –The National Socialist, or NAZI party under Adolf Hitler would answer those needs.

11 Nazism/Fascism Hitler –Need for unity –Weakness of parliamentary politics –The state was greater than the sum of individual interests The leader guides the state –Promises a return to traditional ways –Firm stance against socialism and communism –Glorious foreign policy to undo Versailles Treaty TOTALITARIAN –Constructed a TOTALITARIAN State

12 Nazism/Fascism Hitler –Eliminated all opposition parties –Purged the government and military –Secret police: The Gestapo –Trade unions were replaced by government bodies

13 Nazism/Fascism Hitler –Propaganda –Nationalism –Attack on Jewish minority Anti-Semitism acts as a scapegoat for all of Germany ’ s problems Blames them for personal issues,and for excessive capitalism, causing the rise of socialism

14 Hitler Goal: to recoup Germany ’ s losses from WWI and create an empire that would extend across Europe. –Suspended reparation payments –Withdrew from League of Nations –Brought military forces to the Rhineland in 1936 –1938: Anschluss…union with Austria

15 Hitler Western region of Czechoslovakia was turned over to Germany (Sudetenland). Neville Chamberlain claims that his appeasement had won “ peace in our time. ” Hitler takes over the rest of Czech… September 1, 1939…Attack on Poland

16 Fascist Success Fascism quickly spreads to –Hungary, Romania, and Austria –Italy and Mussolini are emboldened 1935: Italy attacks Ethiopia –Spain Spanish civil war –Parliamentary Republic vs. Authoritarian military state –Authoritarians were under command of General Francisco Franco German and Italian forces use Spain as a dress rehearsal for bombing civilians…Britain/France/US…vague support. Franco ’ s forces won, and remain for 25 years

17 Latin America Cash crops from late 19 th century boom: –Coffee from Colombia, Brazil, and Costa Rica –Minerals from Bolivia, Chile, and Peru –Bananas from Ecuador and Central America –Sugar from Cuba. Import Substitution Industrialization: WWI causes many Latin American countries to produce for themselves Continued to suffer from lack of capital

18 Latin America Liberal policies had failed to address growing class struggles, and poverty. Growing conservative movement after WWI. President of Mexico: Lazaro Cardenas ( )-Redistributed 40 million acres of land, and ran a state sponsored Oil monopoly

19 Brazil Getulio Vargas-President of Brazil after 1929 –Brazilian economy had collapsed –Centralized Federal govn ’ t programs –Authoritarian regime within the context of nationalism and economic reforms. Elimination of parties and groups who would oppose the new government Vargas runs a corporatist government Even though, he joins the allies in WWII, but gets arms Opposition builds by 1945

20 Argentina - Please don’t cry for me! Juan D. Peron and Eva Duarte (Evita) emerged as the power in the Argentinean government –Forged alliance between workers, industrialists, and the military. –Supported the AXIS powers, and had many fascist sympathies. –Nationalized railroads, telephone companies –Populism (hard to manage all the interests!) –Peron turns more radical (attacking Catholic Church)…driven from power in 1955, then comes back in 1973!!!


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