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Review of Socialist Thinking Early 1800s French, German, Great Britain.

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Presentation on theme: "Review of Socialist Thinking Early 1800s French, German, Great Britain."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review of Socialist Thinking Early 1800s French, German, Great Britain

2 French u Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat Condorcet u Claude Henri de Rouvroy Comte de Saint-Simon

3 Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat Condorcet u A physiocrat of Human Development u Mankind in a trek towards “truth and well- being”


5 Claude Henri de Rouvroy Comte de Saint-Simon (1760-1825) u Role of the Government was to do: u “ INDUSTRIAL ADMINISTRATION ”

6 Industrial Parliament

7 Chamber of Inventions u Duties: To Select projects needed u Composition: 300 Members 200 Civil Engineers 50 Poets 25 Artists 15 Architects 10 Musicians

8 Chamber of Examination u Duties: Determine the physical feasibility of the project submitted by the Chamber of Invention u Composition: 300 Members Mathematicians Physicist a few other scientist

9 Chamber of Execution: u Duties: To review the proposed projects initiated by the Chamber of Inventions and approved by the Chamber of Execution as feasible u Power: Has veto power of any and all projects Ability to tax and fund project u Composition: No specific number. Members represent all business sectors

10 J. C. L. Sismonde de Sismondi (1773-1848) u Strong opposition to the “Abstract” nature of the approach taken by Ricardo u Argued that economics should always be “NORMATIVE” rather the “POSITIVE”

11 German Socialist Rather Historicism

12 Friedrich List (1789-1846)

13 Historical Evolution (5 stages of development) u Barbaric u Pastoral u Agricultural u Agricultural/ Manufacturing u Agricultural/ Manufacturing/ Commerce

14 List’s Criticism of Classical Economics u Unlike Classical Economist, he argued that Economic Theory should be strongly nationalistic and historical. u He used his Historical Stages to indicate how even within a country regions with different stages of development should have different economic theories

15 List’s Criticism of Classical Economics (Cont.) u Free trade that displaces either population or domestic industry is undesirable u He criticize the Classical Economist for sacrificing the future for the present. He argued: The power of producing wealth is … infinitely more important than wealth itself

16 Historical u OLDER u Wilhelm Roseher Abstract from Ricardo wrong since actions are based on the Reality developed by History u YOUNGER u Gustav Schmoller Even stronger sentiment against Ricardo

17 Utopian Socialist Great Britain

18 Robert Owen (1771-1858) Welsh

19 Robert Owen u A New View of Society Main point: Individual Character is formed by for him not by him u In a Report to the County of Lanark (1821) he sets the following eight principles: character is universally formed for him not by him Any habits and sentiments may be given to mankind

20 Report to the County of Lanark (cont.) The affections are not under the control of the individual Every individual may be trained to produce far more than he can consume, while there is sufficiency of soil left for him to cultivate Nature has provided means by which population may be at all times maintained in the proper state to five the greatest happiness to every individual, without one check of vice or misery

21 Report to the County of Lanark (cont.) Any community may be arranged, on a due combination of the forgoing principles, in such a manner as not only to withdraw vice, poverty, and, in a great degree, misery from the world, but also to place every individual under such circumstances in which he shall enjoy more permanent happiness than can be given to any individual under the principles which have heretofore regulated society

22 Report to the County of Lanark (cont.) That all the assumed fundamental principles on which society has hitherto been founded are erroneous, and may be demonstrated to be contrary to fact. That the change which would follow the abandonment of these erroneous maxims which bring misery to the world, and the adoption of principles of truth, unfolding a system which shall remove and forever exclude that misery, may be effected without the slightest injury to any human being.

23 New Lanark Mills u In 1800, after the marriage to the daughter of the proprietor, he commence management of the New Lanark Mill. u He put his principles at work by providing to the workers: housing children’s education raised wages decrease working hours other social improvements to the community

24 New Lanark Mills (cont.) u Result: HE MADE LARGE PROFITS Other partners removed him from job u He got disillusioned and moved to Indiana where he began a new experiment at New Harmony

25 New Harmony u New Harmony was founded by the Harmony Society in 1814. In 1814 this utopian u Religious community was sold to Robert Owen. Owen attracted scholars, scientists

26 New Harmony u and educators to his frontier commune and together they made a profound impact u on American science, literature and art. Their homes and way of life are faithfully preserved and interpreted beginning at the Athenaeum, itself an

27 New Harmony u important piece of modern American architecture. North and Arthur Streets, u (812) 682-4474. Open daily April-October, November- March, call for hours

28 Charles Fourier 1772-1837

29 The New World of Love Four Harmonies u Simple Celadony u Composite Celadony u Bimodal Celadony u Multimodal Celadony u One purely spiritual relationship u One compound relationship (physical and spiritual) u One spiritual and one compound u One spiritual and many compound

30 Stages of Historical Evolution u Confussion u Savagery u Patriachism u Barbarity u Human Bliss (8,000 years) u REPEAT THE CYCLES

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