Presentation on theme: "Diversity – Cultural/Religious practices with babies and infants"— Presentation transcript:
1Diversity – Cultural/Religious practices with babies and infants Tessa Oughton GPST3
2The 8 week baby check Can I be referred for my baby to be circumcised? Birth rites across the main religions, then discuss the issues surrounding infant circumcision, when and how this can be done and the debates surrounding this.
3Muslim birth ritesFirst words a baby should here - Muslim call to prayer(Adhaan)First thing a baby tastes;Date juice/honey rubbed into gumsAfter 7th day;Head is shavedThe baby is named‘Aqueeqa’ – sacrifice of a sheep.Circumcision – 7 days until pubertyAdhaan; Whispered into the right ear by the fatherSweet taste – thought to kick-start the digestive systemCleanlinessAs a sign the child is a servant of AllahWeight of the hair is donated as silver to charityIt is also essential for a man to be circumcised to lawfully make the pilgrimage to Mecca, one of the five pillars of Islam
4Hindu birth rites Birth Head shaved Namakarana – naming ceremony Jatakarma – putting some honey in the mouthWhispering the name of God in the child’s earHead shavedNamakarana – naming ceremony3-5 yearsEar piercingHindu birth rituals vary depending on castes and regional practices.Ear piercing is traditionally both for males and females though more modern practice usually does not involve boys.
5Jewish Culture Circumcision (Brit Milah) Traditionally on day 8, performed in the SynagogueMale babies are named at the time of their circumcisionFemale babies are named at the first public reading of the Torah at the SynagogueAlmost universal in Israel as well as the Uk and US
6ChristianityBaptismSymbol of welcome and belonging to the Church. Water is sprinkled on the baby's head as a symbol of new life and of being washed clean from sin.
7Male infant circumcision: Prevalence WHO: ~30% of males over the age of 15 are circumcised worldwide (69% of which are Muslim)Non-religious circumcisionUS – 75%UK – 6%Earliest records depicting the practice coming from Egyptian tomb work and wall paintings dating from around 2300 BCDespite the US being predominantly Christian, there is a very high prevalence of circumcision
8Male infant circumcision Indications;Religious/culturalProposed health benefitsSocialMedical;Phimosis (90%)Paraphimosisbalanitis xerotica obliteransRecurrent balanitis(Hypospadias)Muslims, JewishIn Hypospadias – foreskin is usually used to reconstruct the urethra therefore causing circumcisionBalanitis xerotica obliterans – atrophic white patches to glands/foreskin/urethra leading to phimosis. Can be treated with steroids but may progress to need circumcision.
9Benefits of male circumcision? Proposed medical benefits;Reduction in STI’s including HIV*, genital herpes, genital warts, syphilis, chancroidReduction in penile cancerReduced UTI’sReduced risk of BV & Trichomoniasis in womenReduced risk of cervical cancer in women (due to reduction in HPV in men)Lots of varying research into this with very different results. Generally the advice from the WHO is that there are much better ways of minimising these risks with safe sex advice etc than surgical intervention and the risks of surgery outweigh the benefits.?Increased risk taking behaviour after circumcisionUS Centres for disease control and prevention published article on 2nd December summarising 3 studies in Sub-saharan Africa showing a 50-60% reduction in HIV transmission following male circumcision, however it acknowledges that the risk of HIV transmission in the US is much lower than in Africa and that it is usually transmitted by MSM relationships whereas these studies predominantly looked at heterosexual relationships.
10Male infant circumcision ComplicationsBleeding/HaematomaPainInfectionSwellingRemoval of insufficient or excess tissueDecrease in sensation during intercourseUrethral stricturePsychosocial problemsAccidental amputation of the head of the penis (very rare)!% in neonates, 2-4% in adults.Method – usually local (or no) anaesthetic for neonates, done using a clamp which minimises or eliminates bleeding. Usually fully healed within 1 week.Although it is not too difficult to find a practitioner in the UK, many infant circumcisions are still done by unregulated or non-medically trained practitioners such as religious leaders.Brother in Law is surgical trainee and tells me in the last two years in HRI he has seen a significant number of acute and elective referrals following complications of private circumcisions.
11Male infant circumcision; funding NHS Choices; ‘It is important to note that some CCGs in England do currently fund religious or ritual circumcision on the NHS. The decision is based on priorities that relate to its own local population’
12Male infant circuCIsion Where?Bradford road, FartownBrikby Health CentreClarendon medical centre, BradfordBMI/SpireLeeds children’s circumcision centreSome UK CCG’s do offer fundingThe WirralCircumcision centre – offers as a package for Eid/Christmas
13BMJ arguments‘Allowing male genital mutilation is a discrimination between the sexes’‘An abuse of the rights of the child’‘The unpalatable truth is that logic and the rights of the child play little part in determining the acceptability of male genital mutilation in our society. The profession needs to recognise this and champion the argument on behalf of boys that was so successful for girls’Comparing to FGM – although I think most would argue that the motivation for male circumcision is very different and usually has less drastic results.Should wait till the child is old enough to make the decision for religious and cultural reasons – child may not have the same beliefs
14The law and ethics of male circumcision: guidance for doctors Male circumcision is generally assumed to be lawful provided that:it is performed competentlyit is believed to be in the child’s best intereststhere is valid consent (both parents)*GMC guidance but withdrawn in 2007*Where people with parental responsibility for a child disagree about whether he should be circumcised, doctors should not circumcise the child without the leave of a court
15Summary Widely practiced procedure Possible health benefits Increasingly common in the UK due to increasing cultural diversityWidely available safely in the UK for relatively low costOn going unregulated practice worldwide with associated increased complication riskDoes remain a controversial topic, however if performed safely the overall acute and long term risks are low.Controversy mainly surrounding lack of patient consent and on the other hand the argument that if it were available on the NHS there would be less unregulated practice and therefore less complications.