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Lecture 10: Justification and Predestination Dr. Ann T. Orlando 13 November 2008.

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1 Lecture 10: Justification and Predestination Dr. Ann T. Orlando 13 November 2008

2 Biblical Background Who hardened Pharaoh's Heart? – Pharaoh: Ex 7:13-14, 7:22; 8:15, 8:19, 8:32, 9:7, 9:34-35 – God: Ex 9:12, 10:1-2, 10:20, 10:27, 11:9-10, 14:8 Paul in Romans 9:17 – God and election – God hardened Pharaoh’s heart

3 St. John Chrysostom (349-407) Born and studied in Antioch Antiochene Scriptural interpretation Becomes Patriarch of Constantinople 397 Writes many, many commentaries on Scripture Series of 32 homilies on Letter to Romans – Supports Pharaoh hardened his own heart

4 Pelagian Controversy: Introduction The Key Players – Monk Pelagius, from England, d. 419 in Constantinople – His disciple, Julian of Eclanum, bishop in Sicily, d. 454 – Opposing both, Augustine of Hippo, d. 430 Key Elements – Free will – Sin – Grace – Justification – Predestination Key Biblical passages in disputed interpretation: Genesis and Romans Both Pelagius and Augustine write a Commentary on Romans Key passage: Who hardened Pharaoh’s heart; Romans 9:17-18 Note we live in a very Pelagian age: belief in human progress and confidence in our abilities to fix problems. Primary American virtue: self-reliance

5 Pelagian Controversy: Issues Free will – Pelagian: humanity has total free will; as long as we know what is right we can do what is right; – Augustine: yes we have free will, but our ability to know and act is darkened by sin – Augustine also often means by free will a will freed from the inclination to sin Sin – Pelagians: Adam’s sin was his personal sin; sin is always a willful personal act committed against God by someone who should know better and be able to do better; within our own power to avoid sin – Adam’s sin was a ‘disease’ that entered into humanity; only God’s grace can cure this disease; only with God’s grace can we really know and do the right

6 Pelagian Controversy: Issues (cont.) Grace – Pelagians: external enlightenment from God (e.g., Gospels) so we can know the good; also reward for doing good – Augustine: grace is needed to do good Justification – Pelagians: justified through our good works; it’s all up to us – Augustine: only God’s freely given grace can justify Predestination – Pelagians: God does not predestine us – Augustine: Because of original sin, all justly condemned (massa damnata); by his graciousness, God elects a few for salvation; Baptism a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for salvation

7 Battle with Julian of Eclanum The key test case in the Pelagian controversy became the fate of unbaptized infants: Would God really condemn a innocent baby who had no personal sin to be damned? – Julian of Eclanum pushed Augustine very hard on this point – Referring both to Augustine and Augustine’s concept of God, he said “He is the persecutor of new born children.” Pelagians believed that because infants and young children could not sin, they did not need to be Baptized. Baptism returned one to an innocent state, and gave the grace to lead a sinless life.

8 Augustine’s Response Because all humans inherited Adam’s sin, we are all liable to damnation But God knew that we would sin, so He already planned to send Mediator, Jesus Christ “Now there are many more condemned by vengeance than are released by mercy; and the reason for this is that it should in this way be made plain what was the due of all mankind. For if the due punishment were imposed on all, no one would have the right to criticize the justice of God in that retribution; but the fact that so many are released form it is the ground for heartfelt thanksgiving for the free bounty of our Deliverer.” (City of God, Book XXI) “Unless infants are baptized, they are manifestly in danger of damnation” (On Forgiveness of Sins and Baptism III) “Number of elect will replace number of fallen angels” (Enchiridion XXIX)

9 Examples from Confessions Human race from the salty sea of sin (Book XIII) Grasping, envious desire of infants (Book I) Relief that his friend and Adeodatus die shortly after baptism (Books IV, IX) Without God’s grace, sinful will cannot be moved from sin, even when it knows the truth (Books VII- VIII) Jesus Christ is the necessary Mediator (Book VII)

10 City of God The story of the Fall and its implications Man’s will now a slave to sin, and not really free Origin of sin is pride; pride led to disobedience All men justly condemned Double predestination CoG XIV, XXI.12

11 Legacy of Pelagian Controversy Catholic (Western) Church at Council of Orange, 529 – accepts Augustine’s views on free will, grace, sin, justification; – accepts necessity of Baptism – accepts predestination of elect, but refuses to say anyone is predestined to hell (i.e., rejects double predestination) These issues are doctrinal flash point of Reformation; all sides will claim Augustine for their own

12 Aquinas Ia Q 23 Predestination – Emphasis on God’s foreknowledge – Just as some evil is necessary for a greater good, so also condemnation of some is necessary for God’s greater providential plan Ia Q48 – Ignorance of Gospel is no excuse, since this may also be part of God’s plan Ia Q2 a 79 Ia IIae Q 109 Need for Grace, Q113 Justification and Q114 Merit – Context is more sacramental efficacy of penance

13 Background to Reformation: Indulgences The economics of indulgences at odds with the economy of salvation What drives Luther to radical action is selling indulgences to pay for the office of bishopric of Mainz The Church cannot offer a way to buy into heaven – Only God’s grace can do that

14 Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469-1536) Augustinian canon Humanist who encouraged return to Bible and early Fathers of Church as a way to reform Church Scripture as the philosophy of Christ Optimistic about man’s ability to know and understand; ancient maxim that if one knows what is right, one will do it Detailed textual work on Bible and Augustine – Greek New Testament with commentary most important biblical scholarship since Jerome Most famous scholar of his time

15 How ‘Erasmus laid the egg that Luther Hatched?’ Scholasticism: humanist and reformers rejected it – Humanist because of style – Reformers because wrong about man’s ability to know and act Scripture: both humanists and reformers believed Scripture key to reform in Church – Humanists saw Scriptural authority as based on antiquity and its simple eloquence – Reformers saw it as the literal word of God

16 Luther on Justification We cannot in any way save ourselves Grace is God’s free gift to the sinner Righteousness of God in Rom 1:16-17 means that only God can make us righteous Our response is faith; that is trust in the One who saves us – Faith is passive, God is active The true Christian is both sinner and justified (by God) NB: Justification is the root of Lutheran theology.

17 Luther on Predestination God is in control of our fate Without predestination, implies elements of chance in God’s providence True Christian would gladly go to hell if that is God’s will

18 Luther-Erasmus Debates on Free Will Recall that Erasmus was also a reformer In some ways replay of Pelagian controversy Erasmus writes a book, called On Free Will, like Augustine wrote early in his career In response Luther writes a book called On Bondage of Will, makes points similar to Augustine against Pelagius on need for grace, predestination As in Pelagian controversy, how does one interpret Paul’s Letter to Romans? In particular, “Who hardened Pharaoh’s Heart” Rom 9:17-18; see also Exodus – Do not forget context of Paul’s Letter to Romans – This tension has been on-going in Christianity

19 Calvin and Free Will Institutes II.2 The destitute state of man after sin The destruction of the will Augustine vs Chrysostom

20 Calvin and Predestination Institutes III.23 Complete agreement with Augustine on predestination and reprobation (double predestination) Explicit defense of Augustine against late Medieval and Renaissance theologians and philosophers

21 Catholic Response: Council of Trent Called by Pope Paul III Lengthy, intermittent (1545-1563) – Pope initially reluctant to call council because of bad experiences with councils (especially Council of Constance) in 15th C – Purpose was both to address reform of practice and to uphold Catholic doctrine – Developed in several sessions Jesuits play a major theological role at Trent; encouraged explicit statement of Catholic doctrine in opposition to Protestant views

22 First Session 1545-1547 Key Results Includes Bull of Convocation, Sessions 1-10; Pope Paul III Emphasis on Nicene Creed and Tradition Definitive statement concerning books of NT and OT; Latin Vulgate declared adequate for doctrinal proofs Number of sacraments fixed at 7 Justification: man cooperates with God’s grace

23 Jansenism Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), bishop of Ypres Wanted to restore true place of honor in theology to Augustine in the Catholic faith; Augustinus – Focused on Pelagianism – Man completely corrupt after the Fall – Need for grace from Church and sacraments Major battle with Jesuits, Molina, championed free will and works cooperating with grace Jansenism became a potent political force in France after Jansen’s death – Port Royal Convent – Blaise Pascal (1588-1651) Jansenism condemned in 1653

24 Elaine Pagels (1943 - ) Known for work on Gnostic texts found at Nag Hammadi – The Gnostic Gospels (1979) Interested in variety of early Christian exegeses of Scripture Adam Eve and the Serpent focuses on Genesis and the story of the Fall – Contrast John Chrysostom and Augustine – Real message is our problems about sex and sin trace to Augustine Read Chapters V and VI – Also note the dedication

25 Joint Lutheran-Catholic Statement on Justification Move toward Catholic-Lutheran accord on Justification Recognizing importance of grace in justification But also that works are sign of faith Available at s/chrstuni/documents/rc_pc_chrstuni_doc_31101999 _cath-luth-joint-declaration_en.html

26 Issue is (and will always be) active Camus addressing Dominican abbey: “By what right may a Christian accuse me of pessimism? It was not I who invented human suffering, nor terrible formulas of divine malediction. It was not I who loudly proclaimed the damnation of unbaptized children.” See CCC 404-406, 1037, 1257-1261 This debate will always circle back to how can the good creator God allow (cause) sin and suffering

27 Recent Statement on Unbaptized Infants Vatican Theological Commission released statement on limbo and hope for unbaptized infants (2007) Note historical contexting of Augusitne Available at ions/cfaith/cti_documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc _20070419_un-baptised-infants_en.html

28 Assignments Paul, Letter to the Romans Ch 9 Augustine – CoG XIV, XXI.12 – Enchiridion, 24.96 – 25.99 John Chrysostom, Homily XVI on Romans (Rom 9) – Available at Aquinas (optional) – Ia Q 23 Predestination – Ia IIae Q 109 Need for Grace, Q113 Justification and Q114 Merit Calvin, Institutes II.3, III.23 Elaine Pagels, Adam, Eve and the Serpent Ch V and VI Vatican Theological Commission Statement on Unbaptized Infants (2007) Joint Catholic-Lutheran Declaration on Justification (optional)

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