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Class 12 : Trent Ann T. Orlando 8 February 2006. Rome in Later 16 th C Center of Catholic Spiritual Power Combined with Spanish military might, world-wide.

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Presentation on theme: "Class 12 : Trent Ann T. Orlando 8 February 2006. Rome in Later 16 th C Center of Catholic Spiritual Power Combined with Spanish military might, world-wide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Class 12 : Trent Ann T. Orlando 8 February 2006

2 Rome in Later 16 th C Center of Catholic Spiritual Power Combined with Spanish military might, world-wide reach “Stubborn” emphasis on (reformed) discipline and doctrine rejected by Protestants  Confession  Sacraments  Tradition  Saints  Importance of Papacy  Art in service of religion: the Baroque

3 Catholic Response: Council of Trent Called by Pope Paul III Lengthy, intermittent ( )  Pope initially reluctant to call council because of bad experiences with councils (especially Council of Constance) in 15th C  Purpose was both to address reform of practice and to uphold Catholic doctrine  Developed in several sessions Jesuits play a major theological role at Trent; encouraged explicit statement of Catholic doctrine in opposition to Protestant views

4 Politics Behind Council Charles V wanted control of Council; insisted that it occur in his territory, and control over bishops Also, successors of Paul III, Julius III and Paul IV, not in favor of council  Limited control over French bishops  Not in favor of some reforms Structure of Councils 3 Periods  Period I ( )  Period II ( )  Period III ( )

5 First Session Key Results Includes Bull of Convocation, Sessions 1-10; Pope Paul III Emphasis on Nicene Creed and Tradition Definitive statement concerning books of NT and OT; Latin Vulgate declared adequate for doctrinal proofs Number of sacraments fixed at 7 Justification: man cooperates with God’s grace

6 Second Session ( ) Includes Sessions 11-16; Pope Julius III Degree on Eucharist that defined Real Presence; Transubstantiation as way to describe it Sacrament of Penance revised

7 Third Session ( ) Sessions 18-25; Pope Pius IV Resolution that issues should live in their diocese Catechism of Trent Revised missal and breviary Mass as true sacrifice Reform decrees on clerical behavior and revision of seminary rules

8 Key Theological Statements from Trent Scripture and tradition Sacraments are effect through performance of sacramental action, “ex opere operato” Affirmed Mass as sacrifice and transubstantiation Affirmed 7 sacraments Good works together with faith brings about salvation Affirmed indulgences and intercession of saints

9 Robert Bellarmine ( ) Born in Italy; attended schools run by Jesuits Entered Jesuit order 1560 Writes De Controversiis 1576  Systematic work based on Council of Trent As chief theologian in Curia, he was able to ensure degrees of Trent were implemented Declared saint and doctor of Church in 1930

10 Impact of Trent Defined Catholicism in Modern World  Reiterated tradition  Defined Catholicism as opposed to Protestants Gave the Church a unified teaching program against the Protestants Made Jesuits the theologians of the Church at beginning of modern period  Note, Jesuits not tied to local bishops Relation between Trent and Vatican II still being worked out

11 Assignments 1. Ignatius Loyola Spiritual Exercises, Rules to Have True Sentiment in the Church available at 2. Theresa of Avila. Autobiography, Theresa’s Arguments of the Chapters available at and Chapter XII available at 3. Theresa of Avila. Way of Perfection, Preface – Chapter 7; pp at 4. Trent Decrees on Scripture, Sacraments, Justification, Sacraments, Sermons in The European Reformations Sourcebook. ed Carter Lindberg. Malden: Blackwell, pp Short Paper on Catholic Response


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