Architecture What is Architecture? Architecture is the art, science, and profession of planning, designing, and supervising the construction of new buildings, landscapes, communities, and furnishings in their totality, examining their environment in accordance with the principles of utility, strength, and aesthetics.
What are some the Principles of Design? There are six (6) Principles of Design. You have already been introduced to one of them in the previous lesson. AxisBalance Hierarchy (Contrast)Rhythm Datum (Unity) Transformation The following are the remaining Principles of Design.
Axis Teotihuacan (City of the Gods, Mexico Pyramids of the Sun &Moon, Avenue of the Dead, citadel, and market. An axis is a line established by two points in space about which forms and spaces can be arranged in a symmetrical orbalanced manner.
Balance Symmetry: balanced distribution of equivalent forms, shapes, or spaces on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane, or about a center or axis Types of Symmetry Bilateral Radial Asymmetry
Balance Monticello, Thomas Jefferson Charlottesville, VA Bilateral symmetry: one plane dividing the whole arrangement into identical halves
Balance Radial symmetry: similar halves at any angle around a centerpoint or along a central axis Villa Rotunda, Palladio Vicenza, Italy
Balance The difference between Symmetry and Asymmetry
Balance Asymmetry: creating visual balance without parts being identical
Datum (Unity) Datum: line, plane, or volume that by its continuity and regularity serves to gather, measure, and organize a pattern of forms and spaces.
Datum (Unity) It is hard to detect the notes and relative pitches of the music above without a staff. The staff is used as a datum to organize the spacing of notes and to accentuate the difference between a series of notes.
Datum (Unity) A volume can collect the pattern of elements within its boundary. Phillip Exeter Academy Library Louis Kahn Exeter, New Hampshire
Datum (Unity) A plane may gather elements or serve as a background for the encompassing elements and frame them in its field.
Rhythm and Repetition Rhythm: unifying movement characterized by patterned repetition/alteration of forms/shapes in the same or modified form. Unite d’Habitation Le Corbusier Structural patterns incorporate repetition. Rhythm can be witnessed in the arrangement of rooms in this apartment building.
Rhythm and Repetition In the case of the Sydney Opera house, we witness reverberating patterns. The Victorian houses show multiple rhythms laid over one another in the façade of a building. Sydney Opera House, John Utzon Sydney, Australia Victorian Houses San Fransisco, California
Hierarchy (Contrast) Hierarchy: articulating the importance of a form/space by its size, shape, or placement relative to other shapes/forms of the organization. Hierarchy by SizeHierarchy by ShapeHierarchy by Placement
Hierarchy (Contrast) Catherdral dominates urban landscape in Florence, Italy Olivetti Training School James Stiling Haslemere, England
Hierarchy (Contrast) Legislative Assembly Building Le Corbusier Punjab, India Hierarchy may also be achieved through color.