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Introduction The Rebellion of 1837 slowed immigration to the “Canadas” (West and East Canada), but soon 1000s of immigrants arrived and English outnumbered.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction The Rebellion of 1837 slowed immigration to the “Canadas” (West and East Canada), but soon 1000s of immigrants arrived and English outnumbered."— Presentation transcript:


2 Introduction The Rebellion of 1837 slowed immigration to the “Canadas” (West and East Canada), but soon 1000s of immigrants arrived and English outnumbered the French French Canadians formed political parties to defend their French culture and language etc. French were concerned that if all provinces (Maritimes and eventually BC) joined Canada they’d be outnumbered!.

3 Canada WestCanada West Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) rapidly developed after rebellion. Toronto grew, roads were developed and it became a major centre for business and banking (foundations of infrastructure) Smaller towns developed and businesses were established. Clapboard houses held businesses, doctors offices and dentist practices It was an exciting place to be!

4 Towards ConfederationTowards Confederation United Canada gained more independence from Britain and now Britain refused to finance new projects. Colonial Government (through tax collection) and private businesses had to raise money to fund projects like building ships, canals and railways. Many believed that a union of all provinces would make the nation stronger

5 Immigrants, Rich and PoorImmigrants, Rich and Poor Mixed society of very rich and very poor. For those with little or no money, life was hard. Accommodations were small – most lived in 1 or 2 room houses, long works hours and little pay For rich, educated immigrants with good social standing, life was good. – The rich became richer because their was no income tax… they were able to keep a lot of their money. – No social welfare – “survival of the fittest”

6 No Social WelfareNo Social Welfare  There was no:  Employment insurance – if you lost your job, the government didn’t help you  Health care – you had to pay for care which was archaic  Government assistance – you were on your own! What kind of social welfare do we have as modern Canadian citizen? Why did Victorian values change?

7 The poorThe poor Many new immigrants came from Ireland/Scotland – most were very poor and had little education Most settled in Toronto or smaller, growing towns and worked as labourers, others rented land in return for part of their harvest. While new immigrants faced disappointment and a hard life, they had opportunities in Canada that they didn’t have in UK.

8 Religion in the ColoniesReligion in the Colonies Irish - mostly Catholics Scottish - mostly Presbyterians Colony’s official church was the Anglican Church Religion was very important during the Victorian Era (the reign of Queen Victoria) and most people attended church services – community within a community. Church leaders made decisions about education, schools and community matters and the church community served as the only a way of helping poor.

9 The Native PeoplesThe Native Peoples  Pushed aside by society – land reserves at the outskirts of settlements/towns  They tended to be forgotten about or ignored.  Immigrants only communicated with First Nations people when they wanted something (land or labourers).  First Nations people were ‘forced’ to adopt European ways of life – some adapted, some rejected

10 Aboriginals and Land claims  Land claims and territorial disputes were common – First Nations groups and government constantly discussed issues concerning land practices.  Much of the treaties regarding land rights for First Nation bands, that had been established earlier on, was lost as pressure for land from settlers and the government increased.

11 Government vs. AboriginalsGovernment vs. Aboriginals Government tried to persuade bands to rent out good reserve land. Government would rent it from the bands and then sell it to settlers. Many bands struggled to keep their land, much of the land that was recognized in earlier treaties was eventually lost. First Nations cultures remained strong. Elders kept traditions alive and passed down cultural practices to younger generations.

12 Victorian Attitudes and ValuesVictorian Attitudes and Values Queen Victoria reign from 1837-1901. Her tastes, values and standards set the standards the others followed. Those who lived in Britain and in the British Empire (Canada included) were called Victorians. Victorian attitudes were based on their morals, hard work, success in business and power. Queen Victoria (great grandmother of Queen Elizabeth II)

13 Victorian SocietyVictorian Society Victorian Society was Christian Placed high values on personal modesty and ‘gravity’ (seriousness). Prudish, one could be easily tempted to stray from proper bevaviour Victorian Era – optimistic, British Empire grew, Armed Forces (esp. Navy) were almost beyond challenge. New discoveries – medicine, science and technology

14 Victorian lifestyleVictorian lifestyle People enjoyed adventures (travels) Newspapers accounted for British successes and many Canadians enjoyed reading these triumphs. Felt superior to everyone else - born British was ‘to win the lottery of life.’ Obsessed with social status – occupation and social standing mostly determined by your family background People extremely materialistic and spent money on clothes, homes and furnishings (beginning of mass consumerism)

15 Victorian LifestylesVictorian Lifestyles Churches were lavish, hosted many social events including weddings and funerals. Everyone dressed formally: women wore long dresses/aprons, men wore hats, suits and ties to all events. Extremely wealthy men wore long jackets and high stiff collars, women wore high collared, long dresses made from expensive cloth. Parasols and wide-brimmed hats to protect from the sun to prevent tanning (tan = lower class)

16 Victorian LifestyleVictorian Lifestyle  Demonstrated their wealth in all aspects, including their homes – furnishings, decorations and décor.  Wealthy Victorians usually had extended families and servants who lived in the same house

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