Presentation on theme: "Who were the Exiles The Exiles were the only convicts transported directly to the Port Phillip Districts. They were prisoners of the Crown who, through."— Presentation transcript:
1An overview of the Exiles Scheme 1844 -1849 from records held at Public Record Office Victoria
2Who were the ExilesThe Exiles were the only convicts transported directly to the Port Phillip Districts. They were prisoners of the Crown who, through meeting a number of pre-requisites, were offered Royal Pardons - conditional upon their accepting transportation to the Australian colonies.All the Exiles were selected from among the populations of Pentonville, Parkhurst and Millbank prisons. Their pardons took effect upon their disembarking in the colonies.
3What was the Exiles Scheme Based on the 1838 scheme now referred to as the Parkhurst Boys (sent to WA & NZ). The scheme was a way to continue transportation following NSW stopping transportation in 1842.Prisoners needed to be:Under short sentenceUndergo a period of exclusion intended for reflection about “the evils of their former course”Show good behaviour and potential for reformReceive training in trades deemed necessary in the coloniesMay 1842 – Proposal made to Sir George Gipps (Governor NSW) by Downing Street to send Exiles to Australia under a similar scheme). Victoria suggested as potential destination [VPRS 19 P0 Unit 37 File 42/2057]
4The PardonsPrisoners were listed until a suitable number had been selected for the next shipThe List was sent to the Queen for signature confirming the grant of pardonConditions were that they accept transportation and that they not return to the United Kingdom until the expiration of their original sentence
5How Many ? Between 1844 and 1849 – 9 ships 11 November 1842 – Royal George (21 landed at Melbourne)20 March 1845 – Sir George Seymour (175 landed at Geelong)27 January 1846 – Stratheden (51 Landed at Melbourne)9 November 1846 – Maitland (291 Landed at Melbourne)4 May 1847 – Thomas Arbuthnot (288 Landed at Melbourne)24 Sept 1847 – Joseph Somes (248 Landed at Geelong)25 January 1848 – Marion (292 Landed at Melbourne)22 June 1848 – Anna Maria (163 Landed at Geelong)4 February 1849 – Eden (133 Landed at Portland & 65 at Geelong)A total of 1727 Exiles transported to Victoria over 5 years
6The Process of ExileThe ships also transported convicts and supplies for HobartThey then lay at anchor off Launceston until advised which colony would accept themPardons issued prior to disembarking in destination colony
7Government Commitment to the Exiles To provide hostel accommodation and food until suitably employedTo assist with locating employmentThe exiles could also exit the ship to their own devices but would, as a result, relinquish all right to expect the government to provide the above.
8An Alternative PlanShould none of the colonies nominate to accept the Exiles upon the arrival of a ship then arrangements were to be made to:Establish a separate colony or work depot on the coast of New South Wales to act as a work depot (to be managed by an overseer)Provide necessary assistance to enable the construction of housing and development of self-sufficiency
9“An act of Wanton Injustice” – Public Opinion in Victoria By 1845 public opinion was heavily weighted against the acceptance of further Exiles into Victoria. One writer called the Exile scheme an act of wanton injustice perpetrated upon three fourths of the colonies residents.Opposition increased until, in 1849, the first of an eventual four additional Exile ships were turned away from Victorian ports.
10Types of records available Nominal and Disposal Lists (all nine of the Exiles ships are included in the on line Assisted Immigrants Index and microfiche listings)Additional material can be located throughoutVPRS 19 – The Chief Secretary’s CorrespondenceVPRS 515 – Male Prison RegistersVPRS 2877 – Correspondence from the Land Branch of the office of the Superintendent of the Port Phillip
11David Gray per Stratheden Pentridge prisoner number August 1868 – 12 charges of stealing wearing apparel (3 months) 11 September1868 – Robbery with Violence (10 years)Born: Sussex 1823
12David Gray per Stratheden Pentridge prisoner number 8299
13Case studiesHenry Swindells – Ballarat. Involved in agitating against the Miner’s Licence. Became a respected member of society and successful businessman.Patrick McEvor who deceived both the governments of South Australia and Victoria by posing as a constable and receiving into custody 3 escaped prisoners and subsequently freeing them.
14Why was a new scheme for transportation of convicts required ?