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1 Servitude to Slavery. 2 Indentured Servitude One half to two thirds of all immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants. One half to.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Servitude to Slavery. 2 Indentured Servitude One half to two thirds of all immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants. One half to."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Servitude to Slavery

2 2 Indentured Servitude One half to two thirds of all immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants. One half to two thirds of all immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants. At times, as many as 75% of the population of some colonies were under terms of indenture.. At times, as many as 75% of the population of some colonies were under terms of indenture.. The historic basis for indenture grew out of English agricultural servitude and began because of labor shortages in England and in the colonies. The historic basis for indenture grew out of English agricultural servitude and began because of labor shortages in England and in the colonies. Criminals convicted of a capital crime in England could be transported in lieu of a death sentence. Criminals convicted of a capital crime in England could be transported in lieu of a death sentence. Servitude also could result from indebtedness, where a person, their spouse or parents owed money, and the person was sold into servitude to recover the debt. Servitude also could result from indebtedness, where a person, their spouse or parents owed money, and the person was sold into servitude to recover the debt.

3 3 Indenture Contract of William Buckland Tobacco plantations had a high demand for labor. Tobacco plantations had a high demand for labor. One solution to this was to contract indentured servants. One solution to this was to contract indentured servants. An indentured servant would be contracted to work for a master for a set amount of time in exchange for their passage to the colonies. An indentured servant would be contracted to work for a master for a set amount of time in exchange for their passage to the colonies. Masters were expected to feed, clothe and house servants and their families. Masters were expected to feed, clothe and house servants and their families. This is an indenture contract from 1755 between a skilled laborer, William Buckland, and a master, Thomson Mason This is an indenture contract from 1755 between a skilled laborer, William Buckland, and a master, Thomson Mason

4 4 Indenture Contracts African slaves were brought into the Chesapeake region in 1619, but they were more expensive than an indentured servant. African slaves were brought into the Chesapeake region in 1619, but they were more expensive than an indentured servant. By 1680, African slaves made up less than 7% of the population in the region. 75% of English immigrants to the colonies came as indentured servants. By 1680, African slaves made up less than 7% of the population in the region. 75% of English immigrants to the colonies came as indentured servants. Young unskilled males usually had a contract that lasted 2-7 years. Young unskilled males usually had a contract that lasted 2-7 years. Children who were indentured were expected to serve until they turned 21. Children who were indentured were expected to serve until they turned 21. Some workers were convicts or vagabonds sentenced to service for up to 14 years by the English courts. Some workers were convicts or vagabonds sentenced to service for up to 14 years by the English courts.

5 5 Conditions of Servitude Masters were expected to feed, clothe and house servants. Masters were expected to feed, clothe and house servants. The reality, however, could be quite different. The reality, however, could be quite different. Indentured servants were treated the same as, and in some cases worse than, slaves. Indentured servants were treated the same as, and in some cases worse than, slaves. Female servants were the victims of sexual exploitation. Female servants were the victims of sexual exploitation. 2 out of 5 of indentured servants died before completing their term. 2 out of 5 of indentured servants died before completing their term. Living and working conditions were horrible, and servants who tried to escape could have their term of service extended. Living and working conditions were horrible, and servants who tried to escape could have their term of service extended.

6 6 Freedom Upon the completion of their term of service, a servant was to be given the things necessary to start out on their own: Upon the completion of their term of service, a servant was to be given the things necessary to start out on their own: Clothing Clothing Tools Tools a gun a gun a spinning wheel a spinning wheel Land Land Many former servants headed west to start farms of their own. Many former servants headed west to start farms of their own. Some masters would allow the former servants to pay off the indenture of an unmarried woman, thus freeing the woman and providing the man with a wife. Some masters would allow the former servants to pay off the indenture of an unmarried woman, thus freeing the woman and providing the man with a wife.

7 7 Laws A number of laws were enacted throughout the seventeenth century that restricted both masters and indentured servants. A number of laws were enacted throughout the seventeenth century that restricted both masters and indentured servants. In many cases, they were simply treated as children: In many cases, they were simply treated as children: the masters and mistresses were mandated to take care of them the masters and mistresses were mandated to take care of them the servants were ordered to obey them the servants were ordered to obey them Trade between the servant class and the free members of society was often restricted by law. Trade between the servant class and the free members of society was often restricted by law. Masters were ordered to provide them with food, clothing, and shelter, were not allowed to treat them cruelly, and were liable to the courts if they were found to improperly treat their servants. Masters were ordered to provide them with food, clothing, and shelter, were not allowed to treat them cruelly, and were liable to the courts if they were found to improperly treat their servants.

8 8 Royal African Company A London slave-trade monopoly was given to the Royal African Company in A London slave-trade monopoly was given to the Royal African Company in Set up by the Stuart family and London merchants Set up by the Stuart family and London merchants Led by James, Duke of York, Charles II's brother. Led by James, Duke of York, Charles II's brother. Slaves were branded with RAC on their chests. Slaves were branded with RAC on their chests. Between 1672 and 1689 it transported around 90,000–100,000 slaves. Between 1672 and 1689 it transported around 90,000–100,000 slaves. The RAC Flag

9 9 Olaudah Equiano Olaudah Equiano, an Ibo from Nigeria, was just 11 years old when he was kidnapped into slavery. Olaudah Equiano, an Ibo from Nigeria, was just 11 years old when he was kidnapped into slavery. He was held captive in West Africa for seven months. He was held captive in West Africa for seven months. Then sold to British slavers, who shipped him to Barbados and then took him to Virginia. Then sold to British slavers, who shipped him to Barbados and then took him to Virginia. He was eventually sold to a Quaker merchant from Philadelphia who allowed him to purchase his freedom in He was eventually sold to a Quaker merchant from Philadelphia who allowed him to purchase his freedom in In later life, he played an active role in the movement to abolish the slave trade. In later life, he played an active role in the movement to abolish the slave trade.

10 10 Virginia Slave Code Landowners began to include slaves in the grant process, giving them an additional 50 acres for every slave they owned. Landowners began to include slaves in the grant process, giving them an additional 50 acres for every slave they owned. By 1700, the number of African slaves in Maryland and Virginia was about 19,000 By 1700, the number of African slaves in Maryland and Virginia was about 19,000 This was 22% of the total population compared to 7% in This was 22% of the total population compared to 7% in In 1705, Virginia compiled a number of such slave laws to form the Virginia Slave Code. In 1705, Virginia compiled a number of such slave laws to form the Virginia Slave Code. The code stressed proper, humanitarian care for slaves. The code stressed proper, humanitarian care for slaves.

11 11 Media Citations Slide 3: Slide 3: Slide 4: cots_64_1050_sm.jpg Slide 4: cots_64_1050_sm.jpg cots_64_1050_sm.jpg cots_64_1050_sm.jpg Slide 5: Slide 5: Slide 6: cots_66_1043_sm.jpg Slide 6: cots_66_1043_sm.jpg cots_66_1043_sm.jpg cots_66_1043_sm.jpg Slide 7: Slide 7: Slide 8: flag.com/fotw/images/g/gb_guinc.jpg Slide 8: flag.com/fotw/images/g/gb_guinc.jpghttp://www.allstates- flag.com/fotw/images/g/gb_guinc.jpghttp://www.allstates- flag.com/fotw/images/g/gb_guinc.jpg Slide 9: Slide 9: Slide 10: mage/dealer-inspection.jpg Slide 10: mage/dealer-inspection.jpg mage/dealer-inspection.jpg mage/dealer-inspection.jpg


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