Quotes for the Day “Learning is what you remember after you’ve forgotten all you heard.” “Credibility is like credit once it’s lost it is difficult to restore.”
Rapid Structural Drying Continuing Education Instructor: Bruce Vogt IICRC Certified in: Water Damage Restoration Fire & Smoke Restoration Carpet Cleaning Odor Control Member of National Speakers Association
Bruce Vogt Consultant to U.S. Military Consultant to Hotel/Motel Consultant to Manufacturing Facilities, Plants, Factories, Warehouses Hospitals Smithsonian Institute “Marketing By Delight”
Objectives Provide licensee with information they can use to protect the health, welfare and safety of the policyholder. Provide licensee with information they can use to reduce the cost of the loss.
Objectives Review Current State of the Restoration Industry Review Industry Standards Review Principles of Drying Review Psychrometry – The Science of Drying Review Documentation Review Benefits of Rapid Structural Drying
Brief History Initially water damage restoration was performed by carpet cleaning companies. The primary focus on drying the carpet. Average residential job took 5 – 6 days to dry and put back together. Specialized equipment and training was first introduced to industry in the late 70’s. There was little concern about mold. We thought we could spray biocide and mold would not be a problem.
IICRC S500 Water Damage Standard
S500 provides a procedural standard for use by those involved in the water damage restoration industry. The Standard is technically consistent with the knowledge available at the publication date. To Obtain A Copy Contact The IICRC At:
IICRC S First water damage standard. Total Pages - 75 Introduced categories of water damage. Specified one airmover per square feet. No specification for dehumidifier placement. Recommended biocides for all jobs.
IICRC S Total Pages -100 Provided guidelines for cushion replacement. Provided consideration for biocide application. More details on the potential of microorganisms. No equipment placement recommendations. More emphasis on health & safety.
IICRC S Total Pages-357 Classes of Water Damage Calculations for Dehumidifiers One Airmover for every 10 to 16 linear feet. Heat Drying Large Loss & Cat Losses W.E.T Study
IICRC S520 Mold Remediation Standard
Important Definitions Shall When the term shall is used, it means that the practice or procedure is mandatory due to natural law or regulatory requirement, including occupational, public health and other relevant laws, rules or regulations, and is therefore a component of the accepted “standard of care” to be followed.
Important Definitions Should When the term should is used, it means that the practice or procedure is a component of the accepted “standard of care” to be followed, while not mandatory by regulatory requirements.
Important Definitions Recommended When the term recommended is used, it means that the practice or procedure is advised or suggested, but is not a component of the accepted “standard of care” to be followed.
Important Definitions May When the term may is used in the S500 it signifies permission expressed by the document, and means that a referenced practice or procedure is permissible within the limits of this document, but is not a component of the accepted “standard of care” to be followed.
Important Definitions Can When the term can is used in the S500, it signifies an ability or possibility open to a user of the document, and it means that a referenced practice or procedure is possible or capable of application, but is not a component of the accepted “standard of care” to be followed.
Categories of Water in Water Damage Category 1 - Clean Water Clean water originates from a source that does not pose substantial harm to humans.
Categories of Water in Water Damage Category 2 - Gray Water Gray water contains a significant level of contamination and has the potential to cause discomfort or sickness if consumed by or exposed to humans.
Categories of Water in Water Damage Category 3 – Black Water Contains pathogenic agents and is grossly unsanitary. Sewage and all forms of flooding from sea water, ground surface water and rising water from rivers & streams.. Toilet back flows that originate from beyond the toilet trap are considered black water.
Effects of Time & Temperature
After 48 hours category goes to 2 then to 3 # of Days
Available Training Institute Of Inspection Cleaning & Restoration Certification (IICRC) 2-Day Water Restoration Technician Course Test Administered For Certification as a Water Restoration Technician Contact The Or Must Maintain Certification With CEC Credits
Water Loss Specialist Requires tenure in the industry. Must show proof of insurance, membership w/ Better Business Bureau, etc.. Must attend 1 week extensive training course on all aspects of drying, commercial, mold, building science, legal aspects, etc.. Write research paper on assigned subject. Write formal report on a restoration project. Course currently only offered once a year. Contact ASCR for more Information: (800) or
Certified Restorer Requires tenure in the industry and you meet certain requirements. Must show proof of insurance, membership with Better Business Bureau, etc.. Must attend 1 week extensive training course on all aspects of restoration. Must write a formal report on a restoration project or a thesis on a restoration subject. Contact ASCR For more Information or
Questions To Ask Mitigation Contractor Are You Certified In Water Damage Restoration? Can You Show Me Your ID Card? Are Your Technicians Certified In Water Damage Restoration? Is Your Firm Certified? Does Your Company Follow The Standards Outlined In IICRC S500?
Technicians Should Ask These Questions What Is Wet? How Wet Is It? What Is the Best Way to Dry It?
Moisture Detection Equipment Hydro-Sensor Used to determine the exact perimeter of damage to carpet and cushion.
Moisture Meters Used To Measure Moisture Contained In Structural Materials Non-Penetrating Used to detect moisture under sheet vinyl, wood, ceramic tile, etc. Penetrating Used to detect moisture inside materials, examples, sub-floors, hardwood floors, etc.
Penetrating Moisture Meter Non-Penetrating Moisture Meter
Moisture Meter Scale
Principle 1 - Excess Water Removal Thorough extraction not only contains damage, it considerably speeds up the drying process. Removing water physically can be 500 times more efficient than removing water by evaporation and dehumidification. Principles of Drying
Excess Water Removal Absorb water that’s standing on contents and fixtures by mopping or soaking up with absorbent cloths. Drain water out of ceiling or wall cavities. Extract water from floor coverings. Pump standing water from below-grade areas (i.e. basements, crawlspaces).
Portable vs. Truck Mount THENNOW
ONLY Truckmount Should Be Used On Water Damage Loss TMs are much more efficient than portable units. TMs use 2” hoses. Portables use 1.5” hoses which provide 45% less airflow. TM’s have 60+ gallons of recovery. Portables have 5 to 10 gallons of recovery. 500 times easier to physically remove the water than evaporate & dehumidify it.
Extraction Updates For every 50 ft of hose you lose 50 CFM Dual wands reduce the CFM 50% Keep hoses straight Make a 25 ft length to use with a 50 ft length Unit must be 2” all the way through
CARPET WET TESTING CONCLUSIONS Wet carpet experiences more adhesive strength loss than previously thought by the industry. Instead of 30-50% loss, it appears to be more like 70-83%. Based on samples tested after being wet for 48 hours, the longer the carpet dries, the stronger the adhesive becomes – even to the point that it exceeds the original dry sample. Surface drying requires more carefully controlled conditions and provides cost and productivity advantages.
Carpet wand Static placement tool
HYDRO – XTREME WEIGHTED ROLLER
Extraction Efficiency Pad Test – detach carpet from wall in one corner of affected area after extraction and squeeze the pad with your hand. Extraction is complete when no water can be squeezed out of pad. Different carpets & pads release water differently. For example, cut pile carpet releases water easier than Berber carpet. Carpet & pad are very porous. Once properly extracted they dry very easily.
Water Claw Static Placement Tool
ExtractionToolLbs./ft. In pad 3’ x 3’ Formula to get gallons = ___lbs x.96 8 = ___gallons ___lbs x.96 ÷ 8 = ___gallons Gal. left 100 Sq yard Light wand w/ Truck mount 6 lbs. 6 x.96 8 =.72 gals. 6 x.96 ÷ 8 =.72 gals. 72 gals. Flood-Pro 3.5 lbs. 3.5 x.96 8 =.42 gals. 3.5 x.96 ÷ 8 =.42 gals. 42 gals. Water Claw 3 lbs. 3 x.96 8 =.36 gals. 3 x.96 ÷ 8 =.36 gals. 36 gals. Hydro X 2 lbs. 2 x.96 8 =.24 gals. 2 x.96 ÷ 8 =.24 gals. 24 gals. Extraction Efficiency Note – Light wand w/truckmount leaves 48 gallons Note – Light wand w/truckmount leaves 48 gallons more water in 100 sq. yd. of carpet cushion than Hydro X. more water in 100 sq. yd. of carpet cushion than Hydro X.
Principles of Drying Principle 2 - evaporation Once excess water is removed, the remaining water must be changed from a liquid to a vapor through promotion of evaporation. AIR FLOW!AIR FLOW!AIR FLOW!
Benefits of Effective Air Movement After a thorough extraction the length of time required to dry wet materials is determined by the rate of evaporation. Accelerated rates of evaporation (and faster drying rates) are gained by increased airflow combined with adequate humidity reduction.
New Style Air Movers Move 45% More Air And Draw Less Amps
How Many Air Movers Should Be Used? Past Trends Air movers are placed in corners, usually under the carpet. Carpet is floated on top of cushion of air.
How Many Air Movers Should Be Used? As much furniture as possible needs to be removed from the room to get maximum float. Usually one air mover per 100 to 150 square ft is used. Should be monitored daily.
Disadvantages of Floating Carpet Carpet is 70% weaker when wet than dry. Most all furniture has to be removed from the room. The room can’t be used. Seams have to be cut. Carpet has to be reinstalled.
How Many Air Movers Should Be Used? Current Trend /Rapid Drying On an average residential water loss the industry consensus is one air mover per 10 – 14 linear feet of wall space. Air movers should be positioned at 45° angle to and touching the wall.
How Many Air Movers Should Be Used? One air mover in the center of the room facing down at the carpet. Air movers should be moved a minimum of once daily to ensure sufficient airflow over wet surfaces.
Rapid Structural Drying Setup
When Should Carpet Cushion Be Replaced? S500 says carpet cushion must be replaced under the following conditions: Cushion materials are organic (hair, jute) Cushion has remained saturated for more than 48 hours Cushion is saturated with either category 2 or 3 water Cushion has a non-porous skin
When Can Carpet Cushion Be Restored? Water originates from a category 1 water source Cushion has a porous skin Cushion has been wet less than 48 hours
When Can Carpet Cushion Be Restored? Cushion drying is cost effective Equipment is available for thorough extraction and rapid drying
Advantages of Drying Cushion Job processes quicker Minimum furniture moving Less labor & material cost Less stress on carpet Less inconvenience for homeowner
Principles of Drying Principle 3 - Dehumidification Once moisture is evaporated into the air, it must be removed through dehumidification. The lower the grains of moisture the faster the structure will dry.
What Do Dehumidifiers Do? Dehumidifiers remove the excess moisture put into the air from the evaporation created when we dry wet materials (usually with air movers). Dehumidifiers create grain depression. Grain depression is an industry term used to quantify the difference in specific humidity of air entering a dehumidifier and the specific humidity leaving the dehumidifier.
Dehumidifiers - Two types: 1. Refrigerant dehumidifiers: * refrigerant - most common, most energy efficient * desiccant Operate on the principle of condensation Work best in high temperature/humidity situations Manufacturer-rated in pints removed in 24 90°F/27°C, 95% RH Ex.: 200 pt. capacity ÷ 8 pts/gal = 25 gal/day (15 gal/day AHAM) AHAM-rated in pints removed in 24 80°F/27°C, 60% RH
Dehumidifiers - Two types: 1. Refrigerant dehumidifiers: * refrigerant - the most common * desiccant Perate on the principle of condensation Work best in high temperature/humidity situations Rated according to pints removed in 24 90°F/27°C, 95% RH Example: 200 pint capacity ÷ 8 pts/gal = 25 gallons per day + There are 3 general categories of refrigerant dehumidifiers : conventional - lose efficiency below 68°F/20°C 60% RH, gpp
Dehumidifiers - Two types: 1. Refrigerant dehumidifiers: * refrigerant - the most common * desiccant operate on the principle of condensation work best in high temperature/humidity situations rated according to pints removed in 24 90°F/27°C, 95% RH example: 200 pint capacity ÷ 8 pts/gal = 25 gallons per day + there are 3 general categories of refrigerant dehumidifiers: conventional - lose efficiency below 68°F/20°C 60% RH, gpp heat pipe - lose efficiency below 33°F/0°C 40% RH, gpp low grain - lose efficiency below 33°F/0°C 40% RH, gpp
Refrigerant Dehumidifiers (C onventional) Works on the principle of condensation. Rated by the association of home appliance manufacturers (AHAM) based on pints of moisture removed from air 80°F/60% RH) in a 24 hour period. Begins to lose efficiency below 60% RH/55-60 gpp.
Refrigerant Dehumidifiers (Low Grain) Works on the principle of condensation. AHAM Rated 80°f/ 60% Rh Different configuration than conventional refrigerants. Begin to loose efficiency below GPP.
Desiccant Dehumidifiers Works on the principle of adsorbents. More expensive to purchase and to operate. Can reduce specific humidity to gpp. Recommended in low temperature situations, and for drying dense materials.
Determine Class of Water Damage to Calculate Dehumidifier Requirements Class 1 Slow rate of evaporation. Water losses that affect only part of a room; or losses with low porosity materials. (e.g., plywood, particle board, structural wood, VCT, concrete). Little or no wet carpet or cushion.
Determine Class of Water Damage to Calculate Dehumidifier Requirements Class 2 Fast rate of evaporation. Water losses that effect the entire room of carpet and cushion. Water has wicked up walls less than 24 inches. Moisture remains in structural materials (e.g., plywood, particle board, structural wood, VCT, concrete).
Class 3 Fastest rate of evaporation. Water may have come from overhead. Ceilings, walls, insulation, carpet cushion and sub floor in virtually the entire area are saturated. Determine Class of Water Damage to Calculate Dehumidifier Requirements
Determine Class of Water Damage to Calculate Dehumidifier Requirements Class 4 Specialty drying situations. These losses involve wet materials with very low permeance (e.g. hardwoods, sub floor, plaster, brick, concrete, stone, crawlspaces). Typically, there are deep pockets of saturation, that normally require very low specific humidity.
Classes of Water Damage Class 1: Class 1: confined area, discovered quickly few absorbent materials Class 2: entire floor only of carpet and cushion wicking up walls 12-24” Class 3: water originates overhead wet walls, insulation, framing entire floor of carpet and cushion Class 4: specialty drying situations: e.g., hardwood, plaster, ground soil, concrete Source: IICRC Task Force on Applied Structural Drying
Dehumidifier Calculations Class 1 Slow Rate of Evaporation = 1 Pint Per 100 Ft 3 Class 2 Fast Rate of Evaporation = 1 Pint Per 50 Ft 3 Class 3 Fastest Rate Of Evaporation = 1 Pint Per 30 Ft 3 Class 4 Specialty Drying Situations = 1 Pint Per 50 Ft 3 Low Grain Refrigerant (LGR)/desiccant
Determining Dehumidifier Requirements Calculate cubic feet of room/area. Ex.: 30’x50’ = 1500 sf x 8’ = 12,000 cf Effective drying is based on the dehumidifier’s removal capacity in pints. Conventional Refrigerant desiccant 40 pts 2 ACH Type DehumidifierClass 1Class pts 1ACH Low Grain Refrigerant (LGR)100 pts50 pts N/A 2 ACH Class 3Class 4 30 pts 3 ACH 40 pts50 pts Ex.: Class 12,000 cf 50 = 240 pints/24 hrs. DriTec 150 cfm desiccant Drizair 110 refrigerant Drizair 200 refrigerant Phoenix 200 LGR Drizair 2400 LGR DriTec 325 cfm desiccant 110 cfm (10 amps) 150 cfm ( 5 amps) 450 cfm (12 amps) 250 cfm (7.2 amps) 365 cfm (11 amps) 250 cfm (16 amps) DehumidifierPt./Liter AHAMcfm/amps 48 pt. (23 l.) 58 pt. (29 l.) 108 pt. (56 l.) 124 pt. (61 l.) 148 pt. (70 l.) 135 pt. (64 l.) Phoenix 300 LGR176 pt. (83 l.) 540 cfm (12 amps) Drizair 1200 refrigerant64 pt. (31 l.)227 cfm ( 6.4 amps)
Dehumidifier Calculations Example: 1500 Sf Class 2 Water 12,000 Cf 50 = 240 AHAM We Would Need To Start With 4-60 AHAM Dehumidifier Or 2 - AHAM Dehumidifier On going equipment use is based on psychrometric calculations to verify adequate drying.
Principles of Drying Principle 4 - Temperature Control Temperature control enhances both evaporation and dehumidification. Dehumidifiers are most efficient at temperatures between 70 & 90 degrees.
Temperature Control Keep between 80° and 90° F for first 36 – 48 hours – then lower to 68° - 72° F. Greatly speeds up drying process. Use drying chamber to localize temperature. BTU’s of heat from equipment will raise temperature in affected area.
Psychrometry or Hygrometry Study of relationships between air, moisture (humidity), and temperature, and their effect on various materials.
Relative Humidity The amount of moisture in the air at a given temperature, expressed as a percentage of that air’s total moisture holding capacity. Necessary for determining specific humidity. With Rapid Structural Drying, the RH should be at 40% by the 2 nd day.
70° 50% RH 50% 90° F 25% 90° 25% RH 100% Relative Humidity Changes With Temperature 50° 100%RH 70° F 50° F
Which Has The Wettest Air? 30% RH or 70% RH
And The Answer Is… 30% RH =33 GPP 70% RH =17 GPP
Specific Humidity The weight of moisture in air expressed in grains per pound (gpp) of dry air at a standard atmospheric pressure. The lower the grains of moisture the faster the structure will dry. Measurement used to determine if equipment is functioning properly.
Units of Measurement Grains of Moisture 1 Gallon of Water = 8 Pounds 8 Pints of Water = 8 Pounds 1 Pint of Water = 1 Pound 7000 Grains = 1 Pint 7000 Grains = 1 Pound
7’ 1’ 2’ 1 Pound of Air = 14 F 3 1 pound = 7000 Grains
Before A Water Damage 75°F/ 45% RH
After Water Damage 75°F/ 80% RH
Wet Always Goes To Dry If It Can!!
Digital Thermo/Hygrometer Measures the (RH) temperature of the air. Helps determine the difference between inside and outside humidity/temperature. Used to determine when the structure has returned to normal humidity (before removing drying equipment).
75° F / 50% RH
50% RH = 70 GPP
75° F / 50% RH = 57°Dew Point
Documentation Charts to justify equipment. Photos of damage. Justification for applying biocides. Justification for replacing any item instead of restoring it. Proof structure is returned to pre-loss condition and can not support mold growth.
Communication Can Always Be Better
COMMUNICATION IS KEY Homeowner Insurance Adjuster Restoration Contractor
Documentation Used For Effective Communication Daily Humidity Record Documents conditions of drying process. Establishes drying chamber is working effectively. Establishes equipment is working properly.
Documentation Used For Effective Communication Moisture Map Documents drying of structural materials. Diagrams placement of drying equipment. Establishes structure is dry and returned to pre-loss condition.
Rainbow Moisture Map
Equipment Calculations Form
Documentation Used For Effective Communication Emergency Service Agreement Gives Permission to Perform Work Authorizes Direction of Payment Contains Disclaimer for Pre-existing Conditions
Emergency Service Agreement
Documentation Used For Effective Communication Customer Satisfaction Form Signed by insured upon completion of work Signed Copies Provided to Insured, Adjuster and Agent
Biocides The term is used commonly in the water damage industry to describe any agent that kills microorganism or controls their amplification, including bacteria, molds, slimes or fungi. Description of products generally include suffix “cide,” meaning to “kill” (e.g. bactericide, fungicide, virucide).
Is There Need For Biocides? Biocide application in water damage situations may or may not be beneficial. A primary benefit of using biocides is that they extend the time before microorganisms begin to grow. The new attitude is do not apply biocides unless there is a definable need. The new emphasis is on thorough cleaning and use of air scrubbers to catch particles stirred up by air movers.
Biocide Use in Category 1 Biocides are not necessary in a Category 1 water damage loss using Rapid Structural Drying. Biocides are used in Category 2 and 3 water damage losses using Rapid Structural Drying.
The Effect of Time on Microbial Growth # of Days
Antimicrobials Antimicrobial - A substance, mechanism or condition that inhibits the growth or existence of microorganisms. A general term used to describe various compounds, often built into consumer products or materials that have the ability to limit, control or stop the growth of microorganisms. (fungi, bacteria, viruses and other organisms).
HEPA Filtration Unit HEPA 99.97% 0.3 microns high efficiency particulate air filter
Interior Hallway Food Source – Structural Materials Moisture – Water Damage Temperature - 85°F + Stagnant Air - HVAC off Darkness - House closed, draperies drawn Time days Case Study of Water Loss Left Unattended. for 10 – 14 days.
Benefits of Rapid Structural Drying Dries structure and contents quicker. Better for the health and safety of the occupants. Cleaner way to dry by not floating carpet. Biocide treatment not required with category 1 water damage.
Benefits of Rapid Structural Drying More effective and greater amount of equipment used for shorter time to dry structure. -VS- Less efficient and not as much equipment used for longer time to dry only carpet and cushion.
Benefits of Rapid Structural Drying How Rapid Structural Drying affects overall dollars paid on a claim: Less replacement of costly structural materials Less replacement of contents Lowers Adjusted Living Expense (ALE) Shortens inconvenience time for occupants Close the file quicker!
Benefits of Rapid Structural Drying Eliminates much of the labor of furniture manipulation & reinstallation where most errors occur. Formulas & Standards to determine amount of drying equipment & length of use. Documentation that structure is dry (pre-loss moisture content) from the water damage loss and will not promote mold growth.
Top Ten Questions To Ask the Restoration Contractor 1. Is your company IICRC certified in water damage restoration? 2. What should the relative humidity reading be in the affected area by the second day? (40%) 3. What types of air movers and dehumidifiers do you use? (LGR dehumidifiers & Axial fans) 4. How do you determine how much drying equipment should be left on the job? (RSD Formula) 5. How do you check for moisture intrusion in floors, sub-floors, walls, insulation and sill plates? (You are checking to see if they use appropriate types of meters)
Top Ten Questions 6.How do you set up the drying chamber? (You want to know if they keep the affected areas separate from the unaffected areas) 7.Do you fill out a Moisture Map and a Daily Humidity Record? 8.How do you determine if you have the carpet and cushion extracted adequately? (pad test) 9.How do you determine when to pull the drying equipment from the job? (Moisture Map) 10.Can you provide the homeowner and the insurance company with documentation to ensure that the structure is dry and mold growth conditions do not exist?