Presentation on theme: "Rapid Structural Drying"— Presentation transcript:
1 Rapid Structural Drying Introduce myselfI started in the carpet cleaning & dyeing business with Rainbow in 1977We saw the dyeing business start to fade away (no pun intended) in the mid 80’s and we started to change our focus to cleaning and restoration services, primarily water damage restoration and odor control.
3 “Learning is what you remember after you’ve forgotten all you heard.” Quotes for the Day“Learning is what you remember after you’ve forgotten all you heard.”“Credibility is like credit once it’s lost it is difficult to restore.”
4 Rapid Structural Drying Continuing Education Instructor:Bruce VogtIICRC Certified in:Water Damage RestorationFire & Smoke RestorationCarpet CleaningOdor ControlMember of National Speakers Association
5 Bruce Vogt Consultant to U.S. Military Consultant to Hotel/Motel Consultant to Manufacturing Facilities, Plants, Factories, WarehousesHospitalsSmithsonian Institute“Marketing By Delight”
6 ObjectivesProvide licensee with information they can use to protect the health, welfare and safety of the policyholder.Provide licensee with information they can use to reduce the cost of the loss.
7 Objectives Review Current State of the Restoration Industry Review Industry StandardsReview Principles of DryingReview Psychrometry – The Science of DryingReview DocumentationReview Benefits of Rapid Structural DryingHere are some objectives that I would like to accomplish with this sessionI
8 Brief HistoryInitially water damage restoration was performed by carpet cleaning companies.The primary focus on drying the carpet.Average residential job took 5 – 6 days to dry and put back together.Specialized equipment and training was first introduced to industry in the late 70’s.There was little concern about mold. We thought we could spray biocide and mold would not be a problem.Carpet Cleaners had the extraction equipmentCarpet is what we identified with so that is what we focused on.The equipment was manufactured to dry carpet
12 IICRC S500 Water Damage Standard Originally published in 1994The current revision was published in 1999 and is twice the size of the original document.It is intended to provide current and accurate information about the restoration of water- damage structures and their contents.Throughout the document the terms “must,” “highly recommended” and “recommended” are used to compare and contrast the different levels of importance to certain practices.
13 To Obtain A Copy Contact The IICRC At: 360-693-5675 S500 provides a procedural standard for use by those involved in the water damage restoration industry.The Standard is technically consistent with the knowledge available at the publication date.To Obtain A Copy Contact The IICRC At:
14 IICRC S500- 1994 First water damage standard. Total Pages - 75 Introduced categories of water damage.Specified one airmover per square feet.No specification for dehumidifier placement.Recommended biocides for all jobs.First let me take you back in time to 1994 when the first IICRC S500 was published.READ From Bullets
15 IICRC STotal Pages -100Provided guidelines for cushion replacement.Provided consideration for biocide application.More details on the potential of microorganisms.No equipment placement recommendations.More emphasis on health & safety.It took 5 years for the IICRC to publish the next revision. S75 to 100 pages
16 IICRC S500-2006 Total Pages-357 Classes of Water Damage Calculations for DehumidifiersOne Airmover for every 10 to 16 linear feet.Heat DryingLarge Loss & Cat LossesW.E.T StudyIt took 7 years for the next revision of S500. Which became available just a few weeks ago.From 100 pages to 357.Read BulletsRetail Cost is $135. Our cost to you is $80.00 Order forms are in the binders. We do not have the books here. We will mail them to you when we get back to Waco.
19 Important Definitions ShallWhen the term shall is used, it means that the practice or procedure is mandatory due to natural law or regulatory requirement, including occupational, public health and other relevant laws, rules or regulations, and is therefore a component of the accepted “standard of care” to be followed.
20 Important Definitions ShouldWhen the term should is used, it means that the practice or procedure is a component of the accepted “standard of care” to be followed, while not mandatory by regulatory requirements.
21 Important Definitions RecommendedWhen the term recommended is used, it means that the practice or procedure is advised or suggested, but is not a component of the accepted “standard of care” to be followed.
22 Important Definitions MayWhen the term may is used in the S500 it signifies permission expressed by the document, and means that a referenced practice or procedure is permissible within the limits of this document, but is not a component of the accepted “standard of care” to be followed.
23 Important Definitions CanWhen the term can is used in the S500, it signifies an ability or possibility open to a user of the document, and it means that a referenced practice or procedure is possible or capable of application, but is not a component of the accepted “standard of care” to be followed.
24 Categories of Water in Water Damage Category 1 - Clean WaterClean water originates from a source that does not pose substantial harm to humans.
25 Categories of Water in Water Damage Category 2 - Gray WaterGray water contains a significant level of contamination and has the potential to cause discomfort or sickness if consumed by or exposed to humans.
26 Categories of Water in Water Damage Category 3 – Black WaterContains pathogenic agents and is grossly unsanitary.Sewage and all forms of flooding from sea water, ground surface water and rising water from rivers & streams.Toilet back flows that originate from beyond the toilet trap are considered black water.
28 After 48 hours category goes to 2 then to 3 # of Days1234
29 Available TrainingInstitute Of Inspection Cleaning & Restoration Certification (IICRC)2-Day Water Restoration Technician CourseTest Administered For Certification as a Water Restoration TechnicianContact The OrMust Maintain Certification With CEC Credits
30 Water Loss Specialist Requires tenure in the industry. Must show proof of insurance, membership w/ Better Business Bureau, etc..Must attend 1 week extensive training course on all aspects of drying, commercial, mold, building science, legal aspects, etc..Write research paper on assigned subject.Write formal report on a restoration project.Course currently only offered once a year.Contact ASCR for more Information:(800) or
31 Requires tenure in the industry and you meet certain requirements. Certified RestorerRequires tenure in the industry and you meet certain requirements.Must show proof of insurance, membership with Better Business Bureau, etc..Must attend 1 week extensive training course on all aspects of restoration.Must write a formal report on a restoration project or a thesis on a restoration subject.Contact ASCR For more Information or
32 Questions To Ask Mitigation Contractor Are You Certified In Water Damage Restoration?Can You Show Me Your ID Card?Are Your Technicians Certified In Water Damage Restoration?Is Your Firm Certified?Does Your Company Follow The Standards Outlined In IICRC S500?
33 Technicians Should Ask These Questions What Is Wet?How Wet Is It?What Is the Best Way to Dry It?
34 Moisture Detection Equipment Hydro-SensorUsed to determine the exact perimeter of damage to carpet and cushion.
36 Used to detect moisture under sheet vinyl, wood, ceramic tile, etc. Moisture Meters Used To Measure Moisture Contained In Structural MaterialsNon-PenetratingUsed to detect moisture under sheet vinyl, wood, ceramic tile, etc.PenetratingUsed to detect moisture inside materials, examples, sub-floors, hardwood floors, etc.
37 Penetrating Moisture Meter Non-Penetrating Moisture Meter
39 Principle 1 - Excess Water Removal Principles of DryingPrinciple 1 - Excess Water RemovalThorough extraction not only contains damage, it considerably speeds up the drying process.Removing water physically can be 500 times more efficient than removing water by evaporation and dehumidification.
40 Excess Water RemovalAbsorb water that’s standing on contents and fixtures by mopping or soaking up with absorbent cloths.Drain water out of ceiling or wall cavities.Extract water from floor coverings.Pump standing water from below-grade areas (i.e. basements, crawlspaces).
42 ONLY Truckmount Should Be Used On Water Damage Loss TMs are much more efficient than portable units.TMs use 2” hoses. Portables use 1.5” hoses which provide 45% less airflow.TM’s have 60+ gallons of recovery. Portables have 5 to 10 gallons of recovery.500 times easier to physically remove the water than evaporate & dehumidify it.
43 Extraction Updates For every 50 ft of hose you lose 50 CFM Dual wands reduce the CFM 50%Keep hoses straightMake a 25 ft length to use with a 50 ft lengthUnit must be 2” all the way through
44 CARPET WET TESTING CONCLUSIONS Wet carpet experiences more adhesive strength loss than previously thought by the industry. Instead of 30-50% loss, it appears to be more like 70-83%.Based on samples tested after being wet for 48 hours, the longer the carpet dries, the stronger the adhesive becomes – even to the point that it exceeds the original dry sample.Surface drying requires more carefully controlled conditions and provides cost and productivity advantages.
50 Extraction Efficiency Pad Test – detach carpet from wall in one corner of affected area after extraction and squeeze the pad with your hand. Extraction is complete when no water can be squeezed out of pad.Different carpets & pads release water differently. For example, cut pile carpet releases water easier than Berber carpet.Carpet & pad are very porous. Once properly extracted they dry very easily.
52 Extraction Efficiency ToolLbs./ft.In pad3’ x 3’Formula to get gallons =___lbs x .96 ÷ 8 = ___gallonsGal. left100Sq yardLight wand w/Truck mount6 lbs.6 x .96 ÷ 8 = .72 gals.72 gals.Flood-Pro3.5 lbs.3.5 x .96 ÷ 8 = .42 gals.42 gals.Water Claw3 lbs.3 x .96 ÷ 8 = .36 gals.36 gals.Hydro X2 lbs.2 x .96 ÷ 8 = .24 gals.24 gals.Note – Light wand w/truckmount leaves 48 gallonsmore water in 100 sq. yd. of carpet cushion than Hydro X.
53 Principle 2 - evaporation Principles of DryingPrinciple 2 - evaporationOnce excess water is removed, the remaining water must be changed from a liquid to a vapor through promotion of evaporation.AIR FLOW! AIR FLOW! AIR FLOW!
54 Benefits of Effective Air Movement After a thorough extraction the length of time required to dry wet materials is determined by the rate of evaporation.Accelerated rates of evaporation (and faster drying rates) are gained by increased airflow combined with adequate humidity reduction.
55 Air MoversTHENNOW4.7 amps 1150 CFM2.5 amps 2300 CFM
56 Move 45% More Air And Draw Less Amps New Style Air MoversMove 45% More Air And Draw Less Amps
57 How Many Air Movers Should Be Used? Past TrendsAir movers are placed in corners, usually under the carpet.Carpet is floated on top of cushion of air.
58 How Many Air Movers Should Be Used? As much furniture as possible needs to be removed from the room to get maximum float.Usually one air mover per 100 to 150 square ft is used.Should be monitored daily.
60 Disadvantages of Floating Carpet Carpet is 70% weaker when wet than dry.Most all furniture has to be removed from the room.The room can’t be used.Seams have to be cut.Carpet has to be reinstalled.
61 How Many Air Movers Should Be Used? Current Trend /Rapid DryingOn an average residential water loss the industry consensus is one air mover per 10 – 14 linear feet of wall space.Air movers should be positioned at 45° angle to and touching the wall.
62 How Many Air Movers Should Be Used? One air mover in the center of the room facing down at the carpet.Air movers should be moved a minimum of once daily to ensure sufficient airflow over wet surfaces.
64 When Should Carpet Cushion Be Replaced? S500 says carpet cushion must be replaced under the following conditions:Cushion materials are organic (hair, jute)Cushion has remained saturated for more than 48 hoursCushion is saturated with either category 2 or 3 waterCushion has a non-porous skin
65 When Can Carpet Cushion Be Restored? Water originates from a category 1 water sourceCushion has a porous skinCushion has been wet less than 48 hours
66 When Can Carpet Cushion Be Restored? Cushion drying is cost effectiveEquipment is available for thorough extraction and rapid drying
67 Advantages of Drying Cushion Job processes quickerMinimum furniture movingLess labor & material costLess stress on carpetLess inconvenience for homeowner
68 Principles of Drying Principle 3 - Dehumidification Once moisture is evaporated into the air, it must be removed through dehumidification.The lower the grains of moisture the faster the structure will dry.
69 What Do Dehumidifiers Do? Dehumidifiers remove the excess moisture put into the air from the evaporation created when we dry wet materials (usually with air movers).Dehumidifiers create grain depression. Grain depression is an industry term used to quantify the difference in specific humidity of air entering a dehumidifier and the specific humidity leaving the dehumidifier.
70 Dehumidifiers - Two types: * refrigerant - most common, most energy efficient* desiccant1. Refrigerant dehumidifiers:Manufacturer-rated in pints removed in 24 90°F/27°C, 95% RHAHAM-rated in pints removed in 24 80°F/27°C, 60% RHEx.: 200 pt. capacity ÷ 8 pts/gal = 25 gal/day (15 gal/day AHAM)Operate on the principle of condensationWork best in high temperature/humidity situations
71 Dehumidifiers - Two types: * refrigerant - the most common* desiccant1. Refrigerant dehumidifiers:Rated according to pints removed in 24 90°F/27°C, 95% RHExample: 200 pint capacity ÷ 8 pts/gal = 25 gallons per day +Perate on the principle of condensationWork best in high temperature/humidity situationsThere are 3 general categories of refrigerant dehumidifiers:conventional - lose efficiency below 68°F/20°C 60% RH, gpp
72 Dehumidifiers - Two types: * refrigerant - the most common* desiccant1. Refrigerant dehumidifiers:rated according to pints removed in 24 90°F/27°C, 95% RHexample: 200 pint capacity ÷ 8 pts/gal = 25 gallons per day +operate on the principle of condensationwork best in high temperature/humidity situationsthere are 3 general categories of refrigerant dehumidifiers:conventional - lose efficiency below 68°F/20°C 60% RH, gppheat pipe - lose efficiency below 33°F/0°C 40% RH, gpplow grain - lose efficiency below 33°F/0°C 40% RH, gpp
73 Refrigerant Dehumidifiers (Conventional) Works on the principle of condensation.Rated by the association of home appliance manufacturers (AHAM) based on pints of moisture removed from air 80°F/60% RH) in a 24 hour period.Begins to lose efficiency below 60% RH/55-60 gpp.
74 Refrigerant Dehumidifiers (Low Grain) Works on the principle of condensation.AHAM Rated 80°f/ 60% RhDifferent configuration than conventional refrigerants.Begin to loose efficiency below GPP.
75 Desiccant Dehumidifiers Works on the principle of adsorbents.More expensive to purchase and to operate.Can reduce specific humidity to gpp.Recommended in low temperature situations, and for drying dense materials.
77 Determine Class of Water Damage to Calculate Dehumidifier Requirements Slow rate of evaporation.Water losses that affect only part of a room; or losses with low porosity materials. (e.g., plywood, particle board, structural wood, VCT, concrete).Little or no wet carpet or cushion.
78 Determine Class of Water Damage to Calculate Dehumidifier Requirements Fast rate of evaporation.Water losses that effect the entire room of carpet and cushion.Water has wicked up walls less than 24 inches.Moisture remains in structural materials (e.g., plywood, particle board, structural wood, VCT, concrete).
79 Determine Class of Water Damage to Calculate Dehumidifier RequirementsClass 3Fastest rate of evaporation.Water may have come from overhead.Ceilings, walls, insulation, carpet cushion and sub floor in virtually the entire area are saturated.
80 Determine Class of Water Damage to Calculate Dehumidifier Requirements Specialty drying situations.These losses involve wet materials with very low permeance (e.g. hardwoods, sub floor, plaster, brick, concrete, stone, crawlspaces).Typically, there are deep pockets of saturation, that normally require very low specific humidity.
81 Classes of Water Damage Class 1: confined area,discovered quicklyfew absorbent materialsClass 2: entire floor only of carpet and cushionwicking up walls 12-24”Class 3: water originates overheadwet walls, insulation, framingentire floor of carpet and cushionClass 4: specialty drying situations:e.g., hardwood, plaster, ground soil, concreteSource: IICRC Task Force on Applied Structural Drying
82 Dehumidifier Calculations Class 1Slow Rate of Evaporation = 1 Pint Per 100 Ft3Class 2Fast Rate of Evaporation = 1 Pint Per 50 Ft3Class 3Fastest Rate Of Evaporation = 1 Pint Per 30 Ft3Class 4Specialty Drying Situations = 1 Pint Per 50 Ft3Low Grain Refrigerant (LGR)/desiccant
83 Determining Dehumidifier Requirements Calculate cubic feet of room/area.Ex.: 30’x50’ = 1500 sf x 8’ = 12,000 cfEffective drying is based on the dehumidifier’s removal capacity in pints.Type DehumidifierClass 1Class 2Class 3Class 4Conventional Refrigerant100 pts40 pts30 ptsN/ALow Grain Refrigerant (LGR)100 pts50 pts40 pts50 ptsdesiccant1ACH2 ACH3 ACH2 ACHEx.: Class 12,000 cf 50 = 240 pints/24 hrs.DehumidifierPt./Liter AHAMcfm/ampsDrizair 110 refrigerant58 pt. (29 l.)150 cfm ( 5 amps)Drizair 1200 refrigerant64 pt. (31 l.)227 cfm ( 6.4 amps)Drizair 200 refrigerant108 pt. (56 l.)450 cfm (12 amps)Phoenix 200 LGR124 pt. (61 l.)250 cfm (7.2 amps)Drizair 2400 LGR148 pt. (70 l.)365 cfm (11 amps)Phoenix 300 LGR176 pt. (83 l.)540 cfm (12 amps)DriTec 150 cfm desiccant48 pt. (23 l.)110 cfm (10 amps)DriTec 325 cfm desiccant135 pt. (64 l.)250 cfm (16 amps)
84 Dehumidifier Calculations Example: 1500 Sf Class 2 Water 12,000 Cf 50 = 240 AHAMWe Would Need To Start With 4-60 AHAM Dehumidifier Or 2 - AHAM DehumidifierOn going equipment use is based on psychrometric calculations to verify adequate drying.
85 Principle 4 - Temperature Control Principles of DryingPrinciple 4 - Temperature ControlTemperature control enhances both evaporation and dehumidification.Dehumidifiers are most efficient at temperatures between 70 & 90 degrees.
86 Temperature ControlKeep between 80° and 90° F for first 36 – 48 hours – then lower to 68° - 72° F.Greatly speeds up drying process.Use drying chamber to localize temperature.BTU’s of heat from equipment will raise temperature in affected area.
87 Psychrometry or Hygrometry Study of relationships between air, moisture (humidity), and temperature, and their effect on various materials.
88 Relative HumidityThe amount of moisture in the air at a given temperature, expressed as a percentage of that air’s total moisture holding capacity.Necessary for determining specific humidity.With Rapid Structural Drying, the RH should be at 40% by the 2nd day.
89 Relative Humidity Changes With Temperature 90° F70° F50%100%50° F25%70° 50% RH90° 25% RH50° 100%RH
92 Specific HumidityThe weight of moisture in air expressed in grains per pound (gpp) of dry air at a standard atmospheric pressure.The lower the grains of moisture the faster the structure will dry.Measurement used to determine if equipment is functioning properly.
93 Units of Measurement Grains of Moisture 1 Gallon of Water = 8 Pounds8 Pints of Water = 8 Pounds1 Pint of Water = 1 Pound7000 Grains = Pint7000 Grains = 1 Pound
94 1 Pound of Air = 14 F31’2’1 pound = 7000 Grains7’
95 Before A Water Damage Air @ 75°F/ 45% RH 6942 Grains Of Dry Air58 Grains Of Water Vapor
96 After Water Damage Air @ 75°F/ 80% RH 6895 Grains Of Dry Air 105 Grains Of Water Vapor
98 Digital Thermo/Hygrometer Measures the (RH) temperature of the air.Helps determine the difference between inside and outside humidity/temperature.Used to determine when the structure has returned to normal humidity (before removing drying equipment).
104 Documentation Charts to justify equipment. Photos of damage. Justification for applying biocides.Justification for replacing any item instead of restoring it.Proof structure is returned to pre-loss condition and can not support mold growth.
107 Restoration Contractor COMMUNICATION IS KEYHomeownerRestoration ContractorInsurance Adjuster
108 Documentation Used For Effective Communication Daily Humidity RecordDocuments conditions of drying process.Establishes drying chamber is working effectively.Establishes equipment is working properly.
110 Documentation Used For Effective Communication Moisture MapDocuments drying of structural materials.Diagrams placement of drying equipment.Establishes structure is dry and returned to pre-loss condition.
127 BiocidesThe term is used commonly in the water damage industry to describe any agent that kills microorganism or controls their amplification, including bacteria, molds, slimes or fungi. Description of products generally include suffix “cide,” meaning to “kill” (e.g. bactericide, fungicide, virucide).
128 Is There Need For Biocides? Biocide application in water damage situations may or may not be beneficial.A primary benefit of using biocides is that they extend the time before microorganisms begin to grow.The new attitude is do not apply biocides unless there is a definable need.The new emphasis is on thorough cleaning and use of air scrubbers to catch particles stirred up by air movers.
129 Biocide Use in Category 1 Biocides are not necessary in a Category 1 water damage loss using Rapid Structural Drying.Biocides are used in Category 2 and 3 water damage losses using Rapid Structural Drying.
130 The Effect of Time on Microbial Growth # of Days1234567
131 AntimicrobialsAntimicrobial - A substance, mechanism or condition that inhibits the growth or existence of microorganisms. A general term used to describe various compounds, often built into consumer products or materials that have the ability to limit, control or stop the growth of microorganisms. (fungi, bacteria, viruses and other organisms).
132 HEPA high efficiency particulate air filter HEPA Filtration Unit 99.97% 0.3 microns
133 Case Study of Water Loss Left Unattended for 10 – 14 days.Interior HallwayFood Source – Structural MaterialsMoisture – Water DamageTemperature - 85°F +Stagnant Air - HVAC offDarkness - House closed, draperies drawnTime days
135 Benefits of Rapid Structural Drying Dries structure and contents quicker.Better for the health and safety of the occupants.Cleaner way to dry by not floating carpet.Biocide treatment not required with category 1 water damage.
136 Benefits of Rapid Structural Drying More effective and greater amount of equipment used for shorter time to dry structure.-VS-Less efficient and not as much equipment used for longer time to dry only carpet and cushion.
137 Benefits of Rapid Structural Drying How Rapid Structural Drying affects overall dollars paid on a claim:Less replacement of costly structural materialsLess replacement of contentsLowers Adjusted Living Expense (ALE)Shortens inconvenience time for occupantsClose the file quicker!
138 Benefits of Rapid Structural Drying Eliminates much of the labor of furniture manipulation & reinstallation where most errors occur.Formulas & Standards to determine amount of drying equipment & length of use.Documentation that structure is dry (pre-loss moisture content) from the water damage loss and will not promote mold growth.
139 Top Ten Questions To Ask the Restoration Contractor 1. Is your company IICRC certified in water damage restoration?2. What should the relative humidity reading be in the affected area by the second day? (40%)3. What types of air movers and dehumidifiers do you use? (LGR dehumidifiers & Axial fans)4. How do you determine how much drying equipment should be left on the job? (RSD Formula)5. How do you check for moisture intrusion in floors, sub-floors, walls, insulation and sill plates? (You are checking to see if they use appropriate types of meters)
140 Do you fill out a Moisture Map and a Daily Humidity Record? Top Ten QuestionsHow do you set up the drying chamber? (You want to know if they keep the affected areas separate from the unaffected areas)Do you fill out a Moisture Map and a Daily Humidity Record?How do you determine if you have the carpet and cushion extracted adequately? (pad test)How do you determine when to pull the drying equipment from the job? (Moisture Map)Can you provide the homeowner and the insurance company with documentation to ensure that the structure is dry and mold growth conditions do not exist?