Presentation on theme: "Study Guide Mission to Mars. Contents Astronauts Going to Mars People in space Space food Newton’s Laws of Motion Landing on target Vasimr rocket Designing."— Presentation transcript:
Study Guide Mission to Mars
Contents Astronauts Going to Mars People in space Space food Newton’s Laws of Motion Landing on target Vasimr rocket Designing space suits
Who sends U.S. astronauts to space? N.A.S.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Cosmonauts are Russian
What are we looking for on Mars? Evidence of life Resources – Water (ice at the polar caps, beneath the surface) – Minerals, other resources Possibility of our colonization
Cosmic rays (sub atomic particles from exploding stars) cause cancer. Earth is protected by a magnetic field. Meteorites attack ship walls, need foam insulation Storing and growing food, recycling water Radiation storms: You have to immediately go to a safe area on the ship where the radiation cannot penetrate. Weightlessness: Muscles can atrophy (weaken) without the effect of gravity. Food floats around. Soda pop won’t stay carbonized (gas and liquid separate). Problems in sending people to Mars
Designing Space Suits for Mars Our bodies need pressure to keep gases in our blood and lungs from boiling Air pressure makes the suit very stiff Shrink wrapping?
Storing food on a space ship Only solar power; no freezers or refrigerators, can only warm food (can’t boil water) Foil = heavy; plastic = lets air/moisture in Need very long-term storage techniques: – Thermostabilizing (heating in a sealed package to kill bacteria) – Freeze drying (freeze, put in a vacuum, remove water) – Irradiation (treat with ion radiation to kill bacteria) – Dehydration intermediate moisture rehydratable what we did!
Newton’s Laws of Motion Absorption Acceleration Force Mass Law #1 Law #2 Law #3
Newton’s Laws of Motion: #1 An object at rest tends to stay at rest; an object in motion tends to stay in motion and will travel in a straight line until it meets with a force. Our landers don’t slow down on their own. They keep falling until they hit the floor.
Motion – or Not Inertia: the tendency for an object to remain at rest Momentum: the tendency for an object to remain in motion
Newton’s Laws of Motion: #2 F = MA or Force is equal to Mass times Acceleration We must decrease mass and acceleration to decrease force of our landers hitting the floor. F=MA×
Newton’s Laws of Motion: #3 For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. We need to cushion the lander’s impact to reduce the bounce reaction.
Force Definition: Energy required to move, stop, or turn something; strength or impact, ability of moving objects to create impact Decrease by: – Reducing size and weight of the object (mass) – Slowing down the object (acceleration) – Softening the impact (absorption)
Mass Definition: Density; how close the molecules are Decrease by: – Using few, small parts and lightweight materials – Reducing mass reduces force of impact – NOTE: adding features to reduce acceleration or absorb impact (parachutes, soft materials) will increase mass
Acceleration Definition: Speed of a moving object, particularly increasing speed. Acceleration that does not change is called “constant velocity”. Decrease by: – Catching air in parachutes – Using a broad base to reduce aerodynamic shape and increase turbulence, moving around the force of air – Decreased acceleration reduces force of impact
Absorption Definition: Reduction of force by transferring energy to other areas through flexibility, cushioning, or spreading out force Increase with: – Flexibility: material returns to original shape after impact – “Crumple zone” to cushion force – Broad base to spread force over a larger area
Landing on target Improve safe landings (not on the side of a cliff or in a ravine) Put equipment close to where you want to conduct experiments
Vasimr Rocket Definition: Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (radio waves, propellant, and magnets make a plasma thruster) Importance: – Coasting is slow (6 mo.) – Can’t turn around in emergency – Vasimr: to Mars in 39 days – Uses VERY hot plasma as fuel – Magnets keep rocket from melting