2 Symbol GroupsCircles/Semi CirclesRectangles and SquaresDiamonds
3 Circles/Semi-Circles Circles generally represent devices that can deliver or use oil.Unidirectional Fixed Displacement Hydraulic PumpBi-directional Fixed Displacement Hydraulic PumpBi-directional Fixed Displacement Hydraulic MotorUnidirectional Variable Displacement Hydraulic PumpSemi Rotary Actuator
4 Three Types of Pump Gear Pump Vane Pump Piston Pump Notice that the symbol does not describe the component construction. Symbols describe component functions only.
5 Diamonds Filter Cooler Heater Symbols in diamonds condition the oil in some way. Heating, cooling, filtering etc.FilterCoolerHeater
6 The Hydraulic Power Pack and Symbols The power pack produces the flow of oil (and consequently the pressure) for the hydraulic system.MElectric MotorPumpTankFilter
7 Rectangles and Squares Rectangles and squares are generally used to represent components that direct and control oil in some way.Valves can be:One PositionTwo PositionThree PositionUsually control. Relieving or controlling pressure and flow for example.Directing the flow of oil to various positions.
8 Direction Arrows Arrows Can Indicate: Flow in One Direction Flow in Two DirectionsRotationVariabilityArrow at 30 or 60 degrees through a component that can be varied.
9 Valves Ports Two Ports Three Ports Four Ports Valves Can Have Various Ports:Two PortsThree PortsFour PortsBlocked Port
10 Valve Classification Valves Can Commonly be Classified as: Two Port/Two Position Directional Control Valve (2/2 DCV)2/2 Wegeventil Sperr RuhestellungThree Port/Two Position Directional Control Valve (3/2 DCV)3/2 Wegeventil Sperr RuhestellungFour Port/Two Position Directional Control Valve (4/2 DCV)4/2 WegeventilFour Port/Three Position Directional Control Valve (4/3 DCV)4/3 Wegeventil
11 The 4/3 DCV Symbol Bosch Solenoid Operated 4/3 DCV 4/3 DCV Cut Away Valve BodySolenoidSolenoid CoilSpool (Schieber)
12 Various 4/3 Centre Configurations Semi Open Centre (Pump Side)Semi Open Centre System Side)All BlockedYhH
13 The 4/3 DCV Controlling a Linear Actuator (Cylinder)
14 Symbol OperationImagine the symbol moving from right to left as the valve is operated.The system connections stay in position.The symbol represents the spool position of the valve.
15 Valve ActuatorsThe Valve Actuator Moves the Spool to its Various Positions:Pilot (Oil Pressure)LeverSpringRollerPush ButtonSolenoid
17 Actuators Actuators Can Be: Linear, Single Acting Linear, Double ActingOil pressure extends the cylinder. The load retracts the cylinder.Oil pressure extends the cylinder and retracts the cylinder.Or Rotary
18 Cylinder Cushioning Cushion Illustration Piston Rod Annular EndPiston RodFull Bore EndVariabilityCushion SymbolCushion IllustrationThe cushion slows the cylinder down just before it hits the back (or front) of the cylinder.
19 Other Common Components SpringRestrictorCheck ValveUsed to return some valve spools to a known position.Used to control the flow of oil.Allows oil in one direction only.
20 Control Valves Control Valves Control Pressure and Flow Relief Valve Pressure Reducing ValveRestrictor With Check ValvePressure Relief Valves are primarily used to set the maximum system pressure.Pressure Reducing Valves are used to set the maximum system pressure at the valve outlet. The valve gives a controlled pressure output lower than the inlet pressure.Restrictors are used to control oil flow and thus actuator and system speeds.Pressure Controlling ValvesFlow Controlling Valve
21 Relief Valve Symbol Operation High PressureLow Pressure
22 Inside the Relief Valve and Restrictor Relief ValvesRestrictor with Check ValveInlet/OutletAdjustmentInletOutletAdjustmentSpringCheck ValveInlet/OutletRestrictor Orifice