2IntroductionHydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors perform a function opposite to that performed by a pump. They extract energy from a fluid, and convert it to mechanical energy to perform useful work.Hydraulic CylinderElectric MotorT x ωV x IHydraulic PumpP x QHydraulic MotorF x vHydraulic System
3IntroductionHydraulic cylinders, also called linear actuators provide a force that drives an external load along a straight line.Hydraulic motors, also called rotary actuators, provide a torque that drives an external load along a circular path.Hydraulic CylinderElectric MotorT x ωV x IHydraulic PumpP x QHydraulic MotorF x vHydraulic System
17The three combinations are inverted slider crank mechanisms Combining Cylinders with Mechanical Linkages: Oscillatory motion with thrust amplification or reductionFirst Class LeverSecond Class LeverThird Class LeverThe three combinations are inverted slider crank mechanisms
18Two direction straight line Combining Cylinders with Mechanical Linkages: Straight line motion with thrust amplification or reduction2:1 Motion Multiplier(Rack and Pinion)Two direction straight lineThrust Reducer(Six Bar Mechanism)
19Combining Cylinders with Mechanical Linkages: Continuous Rotary Motion Continuous Rotation(Double Ratchet)Fast Rotary Motion(Screw and Nut)
20Combining Cylinders with Mechanical Linkages: Motion Transfer Transfer to Distant Point(Pantograph)
21Cylinder Alignment: Spherical Bushings and Spherical Bearings Much effort has been made by manufacturers of hydraulic cylinders to relieve or eliminate the side loading of cylinders created as a result of misalignment. It is almost impossible to get perfect alignment and since the alignment of the cylinder has a direct bearing on its life, the efforts have been well worth while.A spherical bushing or a spherical bearing is commonly used to deal with misalignment. This approach may not be able to take the loads that the cylinder is capable of producing. It can act as a complete hinge in one direction only, while being limited to a maximum misalignment of five degrees in the other directions.Spherical BushingSpherical Roller Bearing
22Cylinder Alignment: Universal Joints A universal joint alignment accessory may be used. It allows fifteen degrees of angular misalignment on each side of center. It also provides more load carrying capabilities.It is recommended that not more than a thirty degree maximum misalignment angle be used on the pins
23Cylinder Force, Velocity and Power PistonRodPortExtension StrokeRetraction Stroke
24Cylinder Loading Through 1st class lever As the lever rotates an angle ϴ from its initial orientation, the cylinder rotates an angle фcyl and the load rotates with an angle фload Neglecting friction and dynamic loading (small values compared to forces from the cylinder thrust and load), then taking the moments around the pivot, O, we haveL1L2ϕcylϴOFloadFcylϕloadFor small values of ϴ and фcyl , and фload sin ϴ sin фcyl ≈ 0, and sin ϴ sin фcyl ≈ 0Assuming no change on the load orientation, фload =0
25Load Displacement Through 1st class lever Assume no change on the orientation of the load, and using the conservation of energy (FcylΔcyl = Fload Δload), we have from the previous equation for small values of ϴ and фL1L2ϕϴOFloadFcyl
26Cylinder Loading Through 2nd class lever ϕϴOFloadFcylUsing the previous assumptions, with no change on the load orientation, we have we haveFor small values of ϴ and ф, sin ϴ sin ф ≈ 0, and
27Cylinder Loading Through 3rd class lever ϴOFloadFcylϕIn this case, we haveFor small values of ϴ and ф, sin ϴ sin ф ≈ 0, and
28Buckling and Telescopic Cylinders Buckling occurs when the rod of the cylinder bend or bows sideways under the action of compressive load. The longer and lighter the cylinder rod, the more likely it is for it to buckle. When selecting a cylinder from catalog, it is important to calculate the buckling loads.Telescopic cylinders allow a longer cylinder stroke without buckling. These cylinders have from 2 to five telescopic sections with each section sliding inside a larger section. They are used for lifting platforms, tipping platforms and other commercial vehicle applications.
29Hydraulic Cylinders Cushions Double acting cylinders sometimes contain cylinder cushions at the end of the cylinder to slow down the piston near the ends of the stroke. This prevents excessive impact when the piston is sopped by the end caps.Deceleration starts when the tapered plunger enters the opening in the cap. This restricts the exhaust flow from the barrel to the ports. During the last portion of the stroke, the oil must exhaust through an adjustable opening
30Hydraulic Cylinders Cushions The cushion also incorporates a check valve to allow free flow to the barrel during the piston’s reversed stroke.The maximum pressure developed by cushions at the end of the cylinder must be considered, since excessive pressure buildup would rupture the cylinder.Refer to example 6-6 in the book, which illustrates how to calculate this pressure.
31Hydraulic Shock Absorbers A shock absorber is a multiple orifice hydraulic device. When a moving load strikes the bumper of the shock absorber, it sets the rod piston in motion, which pushes the oil through the a series of holes from the inner, high pressure chamber, to the outer, low pressure chamber.The resistance of the oil flow caused by the holes creates a pressure that acts against the piston to oppose the moving load.