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Hydraulic Cylinders and Cushioning Devices. Introduction  Hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors perform a function opposite to that performed by a.

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Presentation on theme: "Hydraulic Cylinders and Cushioning Devices. Introduction  Hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors perform a function opposite to that performed by a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hydraulic Cylinders and Cushioning Devices

2 Introduction  Hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors perform a function opposite to that performed by a pump. They extract energy from a fluid, and convert it to mechanical energy to perform useful work. Hydraulic Cylinder Electric Motor T x ω V x I Hydraulic Pump P x Q Hydraulic Motor F x v T x ω Hydraulic System

3 Introduction  Hydraulic cylinders, also called linear actuators provide a force that drives an external load along a straight line.  Hydraulic motors, also called rotary actuators, provide a torque that drives an external load along a circular path. Hydraulic Cylinder Electric Motor T x ω V x I Hydraulic Pump P x Q Hydraulic Motor F x v T x ω Hydraulic System

4 Hand Operated Hydraulic Jack

5

6 Telescopic Boom Forklift Airplane Wing Flaps and Landing Gear

7 Telescopic Boom Forklift

8 Airplane Wing Flaps and Landing Gear

9 Single Acting Hydraulic Cylinders Graphic Symbol (P&ID Symbol) Push Action Oil to extend Return by External Force (e.g. Gravity) Port Extension Retraction Piston Piston Seal Rod Barrel

10 Single Acting Hydraulic Cylinders Push Action Oil to extend, Spring for return Pull Action Oil to retract, Spring to extend

11 Double Acting Hydraulic Cylinders Graphic Symbol (P&ID Symbol) Oil to extend. Oil for Return Extension Retraction Piston Piston Seal Rod Seal Rod Barrel Port B Port A

12 Double Ended Piston Rod Double Acting Cylinder Graphic Symbol (P&ID Symbol) Oil to extend. Oil for Return Piston Piston Seal Rod Seal Rod Barrel Port B Port A Rod Seal

13 Cylinder Construction Tie Rod Front Cap Barrel End Cap Threaded Rod

14 Double Acting Hydraulic Cylinders

15 Cylinder Mounting Methods Front Flange Foot Bracket Intermediate Trunnion Rear Flange Side Lug Clevis (Rear Pivot)

16 Cylinder Mounting Methods Direct Rear Foot Bracket Front Flange Clevis (Rear Pivot) Intermediate Trunnion Screwed Front

17 Combining Cylinders with Mechanical Linkages: Oscillatory motion with thrust amplification or reduction First Class Lever Second Class Lever Third Class Lever The three combinations are inverted slider crank mechanisms

18 Combining Cylinders with Mechanical Linkages: Straight line motion with thrust amplification or reduction Thrust Reducer (Six Bar Mechanism) 2:1 Motion Multiplier (Rack and Pinion) Two direction straight line

19 Combining Cylinders with Mechanical Linkages: Continuous Rotary Motion Continuous Rotation (Double Ratchet) Fast Rotary Motion (Screw and Nut)

20 Combining Cylinders with Mechanical Linkages: Motion Transfer Transfer to Distant Point (Pantograph)

21 Cylinder Alignment: Spherical Bushings and Spherical Bearings  Much effort has been made by manufacturers of hydraulic cylinders to relieve or eliminate the side loading of cylinders created as a result of misalignment. It is almost impossible to get perfect alignment and since the alignment of the cylinder has a direct bearing on its life, the efforts have been well worth while.  A spherical bushing or a spherical bearing is commonly used to deal with misalignment. This approach may not be able to take the loads that the cylinder is capable of producing. It can act as a complete hinge in one direction only, while being limited to a maximum misalignment of five degrees in the other directions. Spherical Bushing Spherical Roller Bearing

22 Cylinder Alignment: Universal Joints  A universal joint alignment accessory may be used. It allows fifteen degrees of angular misalignment on each side of center. It also provides more load carrying capabilities.  It is recommended that not more than a thirty degree maximum misalignment angle be used on the pins

23 Cylinder Force, Velocity and Power  Extension Stroke  Retraction Stroke Piston Rod Port

24 Cylinder Loading Through 1 st class lever  As the lever rotates an angle ϴ from its initial orientation, the cylinder rotates an angle ф cyl and the load rotates with an angle ф load Neglecting friction and dynamic loading (small values compared to forces from the cylinder thrust and load), then taking the moments around the pivot, O, we have L1L1 L2L2 ϕ cyl O F load F cyl ϕ load  For small values of ϴ and ф cyl, and ф load sin ϴ sin ф cyl ≈ 0, and sin ϴ sin ф cyl ≈ 0  Assuming no change on the load orientation, ф load =0

25 Load Displacement Through 1 st class lever  Assume no change on the orientation of the load, and using the conservation of energy ( F cyl Δ cyl = F load Δ load ), we have from the previous equation for small values of ϴ and ф L1L1 L2L2 ϕ O F load F cyl

26 Cylinder Loading Through 2 nd class lever  Using the previous assumptions, with no change on the load orientation, we have we have  For small values of ϴ and ф, sin ϴ sin ф ≈ 0, and L1L1 L2L2 ϕ O F load F cyl

27 Cylinder Loading Through 3 rd class lever  In this case, we have  For small values of ϴ and ф, sin ϴ sin ф ≈ 0, and L1L1 L2L2 O F load F cyl ϕ

28 Buckling and Telescopic Cylinders  Buckling occurs when the rod of the cylinder bend or bows sideways under the action of compressive load. The longer and lighter the cylinder rod, the more likely it is for it to buckle. When selecting a cylinder from catalog, it is important to calculate the buckling loads.  Telescopic cylinders allow a longer cylinder stroke without buckling. These cylinders have from 2 to five telescopic sections with each section sliding inside a larger section. They are used for lifting platforms, tipping platforms and other commercial vehicle applications.

29 Hydraulic Cylinders Cushions  Double acting cylinders sometimes contain cylinder cushions at the end of the cylinder to slow down the piston near the ends of the stroke. This prevents excessive impact when the piston is sopped by the end caps.  Deceleration starts when the tapered plunger enters the opening in the cap. This restricts the exhaust flow from the barrel to the ports. During the last portion of the stroke, the oil must exhaust through an adjustable opening

30 Hydraulic Cylinders Cushions  The cushion also incorporates a check valve to allow free flow to the barrel during the piston’s reversed stroke.  The maximum pressure developed by cushions at the end of the cylinder must be considered, since excessive pressure buildup would rupture the cylinder.  Refer to example 6-6 in the book, which illustrates how to calculate this pressure.

31 Hydraulic Shock Absorbers  A shock absorber is a multiple orifice hydraulic device. When a moving load strikes the bumper of the shock absorber, it sets the rod piston in motion, which pushes the oil through the a series of holes from the inner, high pressure chamber, to the outer, low pressure chamber.  The resistance of the oil flow caused by the holes creates a pressure that acts against the piston to oppose the moving load.


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