3 Connectionist Roots Trinity was “unscriptural” Believed in “one living and true God, who is un-originated, independent, and eternal”. Christ was not.Holy Spirit - “the power and energy of God holy influence”Joshua V. Himes,Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1835) 363
4 Sabbatarian Anti-Trinitarians James WhiteJoseph BatesJ.N. AndrewsM.E. CornellJ.H. WaggonerJ.N. LoughboroughUriah SmithA.C. BourdeauD.T. BourdeauR.F. CottrellA.T. JonesW.W. Prescott“Did all the Fathers sin?” (A. W. Spalding to L. E. Froom, 1947)
5 Sabbatarian Pioneers - I James White“old unscriptural trinitarian creed” (1846)“the old trinitarian absurdity that Jesus Christ is the very and Eternal God” (1852)“inexplicable trinity” (1877)16th C reformers should have continued to reform and included Trinity in cleanup (1856)
6 Sabbatarian Pioneers - 2 John N Andrews“the Son of God At some point in the eternity of the past” had a “beginning of days.” (1869)Christ’s immortality was “derived” (1874)M E Cornell“a fruit of the great apostasy”
7 Sabbatarian Pioneers - 3 Uriah Smith – semi-Arian“first created being . . .before any other created being” (1865)“God alone” is “without beginning”. (1898)Christ appeared due to “some divine impulse or process.” (1898)
8 Fundamental Beliefs (1980) 2. The TrinityThere is one God: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, a unity of three co-eternal persons.4. The SonGod the Eternal Son Forever truly God . . .5. The Holy SpiritGod the Eternal Spirit He . . .
9 Students of the Development Erwin Gane (1963)Russell Holt (1969)LeRoy Froom (1971)Merlin Burt (1996)Woodrow Whidden (1998)Jerry Moon (2003)
10 Ellen White An Episcopalian Methodist Articles of Religion 1: Of Faith in the Holy Trinity.“There is but one living and true God And in unity of this God-head, there are three persons of one substance, power, and eternity;—the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.”The Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church in America ~ (1798) (Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury)
11 Ellen White’s Difficulty “There is but one living and true God, everlasting, without body or parts, And in unity of this God-head, there are three persons of one substance, power, and eternity;— Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.”(Articles of Religion 1: Of Faith in the Holy Trinity).
12 Reasons for Rejecting Trinity Spiritualized God too much – made God “unreal”How could “immortal” God die on Cross and still be immortal?
13 More Reasons . . .Thought the Trinity made the Father and the Son identical.Misconception that “Trinity” means the existence of three Gods.“Son” of God means more recent origin for ‘Son.”
14 The Ambiguous Ellen White Troubled by “without body or parts.”Anti-creedal.No explicit anti- or semi- trinitarian statements.
15 The Ambiguous Ellen White No traditional trinitarian expressions.No “trinity.”No “unity of the God-head.”Statements can be read either way.
16 EGW Godhead Terminology The three great powers of heaven.Three living persons of the heavenly trio.Three holy dignitaries of heaven.(Evangelism 616)
17 Why and How did things change? In stages. Our QuestionWhy and How did things change? In stages.
18 Gil’s View of the Stages Dominant Anti-T:A paradigm shift at the core:Widening Realignments: /14Slow Decline of Anti-TDominance of Trinitarianism
19 Jesus at the Center of Adventist Theology A Watershed“A Paradigm Shift”Jesus at the Center of Adventist TheologyNot law!
31 Clearer Views of Jesus“It was Christ who from the bush on Mount Horeb spoke to Moses saying, "I AM THAT I AM Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you." Ex. 3:14. This was the pledge of Israel's deliverance. So when He came "in the likeness of men," He declared Himself the I AM
32 Clearer Views of JesusAnd to us He says: "I AM the Good Shepherd." "I AM the living Bread." "I AM the Way, the Truth, and the Life." "All power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth." John 10:11; 6:51; 14:6; Matt. 28:18. I AM the assurance of every promise. I AM; be not afraid. "God with us" is the surety of our deliverance from sin, the assurance of our power to obey the law of heaven.” (DA 24.3)
33 Clearer Views of Jesus“Jesus declared, "I am the resurrection, and the life." In Christ is life, original, unborrowed, underived. "He that hath the Son hath life." 1 John 5:12. The divinity of Christ is the believer's assurance of eternal life.”(DA 530)
34 John CummingSabbath Evening Readings on the New Testament: St John (1854).Cumming was minister of a Church of Scotland congregation in Convent Garden, London.Published approximately 180 books during his lifetime. One of the most virulent anti-catholic preachers of his day.
37 Andrew Murray“It is generally admitted in the Church that the Holy Spirit has not the recognition which becomes Him as being the equal of the Father and the Son, the Divine Person through whom alone the Father and the Son can be truly possessed and known . . .”The Spirit of Christ p 20
38 The Spirit as “Person” Institute Bible Studies (March/April 1896)“Holy Spirit in our Schools.”EGW first time in print uses “He”(May 10, 1896)
39 Clearer Views of the Spirit “The prince of the power of evil can only be held in check by the power of God in the third person of the Godhead, the Holy Spirit.”Special Testimonies for Ministers and Workers, 25, 37(1897).
40 Clearer Views of the Spirit “The mighty agency of the Third Person of the Godhead, who would come with no modified energy, but in the fullness of divine power.”Desire of Ages. 671 (1898)
41 Clearer Views of the Spirit “We need to realize that the Holy Spirit who is as much a person as God is a person, is walking through these grounds.” [Avondale] (MS )
42 Implementing a New Consensus New Summary of BeliefsF. M. Wilcox – InclusiveRevising the books –Bible ReadingsThoughts on Daniel/Revelation
43 Implementing a New Consensus Theology and Adventist Hymnody1941 Hymnbook:No 73: “Holy Holy Holy” but no “Trinity”No 45 “The Sun is on the Land and Sea”last stanza “All Glory to the Trinity”
44 Implementing a New Consensus Theology and Adventist Hymnody1985 Hymnbook:No 73: “H, H, H,” with “Blessed Trinity”Six others on theme of Triune God
45 The Processes of Change Encounters with God – love and graceClearer views of JesusApologeticsStudy of ScriptureInadequacy of previous explanationsChange Agents
46 Clearer Views of Jesus Enriched our understanding of God Enlarged our horizons of missionAre still the need of the church
48 SourcesJerry Moon. “The Adventist Trinity Debate, Part 1: Historical Overview” (AUSS [41:1] Spring 2003, ); and “The Adventist Trinity Debate, Part 2: The Role of Ellen G. White” (AUSS [41:2] Autumn 2003, ).W. Whidden, J. Moon, J.W. Reeve. The Trinity: Understanding God’s love, His plan of salvation, and Christian relationships (RHPA 2002),Gilbert Valentine. “A slice of history: How clearer views of Jesus developed in the Adventist Church” Ministry , May 2005, 14-19Gilbert Valentine W. W. Prescott (RHPA, 2005) ;Merlin Burt, “Demise of Semi-Arianism and Anti-Trinitarianism in Adventist Theology, ” Unpublished Paper, Andrews University Research Center (1996)Correspondence: H Camden Lacey to L. E. Froom, 1945, H Camden Lacey to A. W. Spalding, General Conference Archives.George Knight, Search for Identity, (RHPA, 2000) , , , 196
49 E. J. Waggoner 2nd Gen Adventists Christ in position of equality with Father but there was a time when he “proceeded forth” from the father. (1890)
50 Stages in Development Dominant Anti-T: 1846-1888 Dissatisfaction with Anti-T:Paradigm shift:Decline of Anti-T:Dominance of TrinitarianismJerry Moon