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2 Hate crime and mental health DC Phil Merriam Essex Police

3 What is hate crime?

4 Hate Crime Any incident, whether a crime or not, which is perceived by anyone to be motivated by hostility or prejudice based on a personal characteristic.

5 Personal Characteristics (Strands) Race, Ethnicity, Country of Origin Religion, Belief or no Belief Sexual Orientation Disability Gender Identity Other

6 Disability includes Mental health Learning disability Physical disability Sensory disability Life limiting illness

7 Under Reporting 2011 British Crime Survey – Hate Incidents Race identified recorded 26% Sexual Orientation identified 4477 recorded 9% Religion identified 1773 recorded 5% Estimate - only 15% of Hate Incidents are reported to / recorded by Police Services Disability identified 2095 recorded 3% (40 in Essex)

8 Barriers to Reporting Non-recognition of Hate motivation Cultural issues/pressure Ashamed or Embarrassed Sensitive and emotive subject Believe they are to blame Will not be believed Not serious enough Nothing will be done Low chance of a positive outcome Fear of reprisals Not knowing how/where to report Health issues Accessibility difficulties Time/inconvenience Mistrust of Police & other Services Negative experiences of reporting Feeling Mistrust in authorities Fear of court process Normalised to abuse Sense of ‘that’s just how it is’ Secondary Victimisation

9 The numbers Hate Crime - all strands Hate TypeCrime Non- Crime TotalCrime Non- Crime Total % +/- Crime Non- Crime Total % +/- Disability Race Religion Sexual Orientation Transgender Other/Not recorded All Hate Crime

10 Types of incident Essex Police - recorded disability hate incidents, 2013 IncidentsDescriptors Non-reportable hate incident MH9 Bullying / Antisocial behaviour LD13 Physical21 Sensory2 TOTAL45 1 st Harassment warning (not counted as crime) MH1 Harassment LD2 Physical1 Sensory TOTAL4 TOTAL Non -crime49 CrimesMH83x assault, 3x harassment, 2x damage LD247x assault, 14x harassment Physical282x assault, 21x harassment Sensory21x harassment, 1x damage TOTAL Crime62 TOTAL All incidents111

11 Why Is Hate Crime Different To Other Crime? Hate crime is about peoples personal characteristics that they cannot change, causing greater psychological harm. Hate crime is about hostility & prejudice against whole groups of people, not just individuals. Hate crime is often targeted at vulnerable members of society, who may have no voice.

12 Tackling hate crime

13 Hate Incident Reporting Centres (HIRCs) Hate Crime Ambassadors Strategic partnership (SHCPP) Multi-agency work-plan Stop the Hate campaign

14 Dc 1570 Phil Merriam, Essex Police Hate Crime Performance & Review Officer

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