Hate Crime Any incident, whether a crime or not, which is perceived by anyone to be motivated by hostility or prejudice based on a personal characteristic.
Personal Characteristics (Strands) Race, Ethnicity, Country of Origin Religion, Belief or no Belief Sexual Orientation Disability Gender Identity Other
Disability includes Mental health Learning disability Physical disability Sensory disability Life limiting illness
Under Reporting 2011 British Crime Survey – Hate Incidents Race 136000 identified 35875 recorded 26% Sexual Orientation 50000 identified 4477 recorded 9% Religion 39000 identified 1773 recorded 5% Estimate - only 15% of Hate Incidents are reported to / recorded by Police Services Disability 65000 identified 2095 recorded 3% (40 in Essex)
Barriers to Reporting Non-recognition of Hate motivation Cultural issues/pressure Ashamed or Embarrassed Sensitive and emotive subject Believe they are to blame Will not be believed Not serious enough Nothing will be done Low chance of a positive outcome Fear of reprisals Not knowing how/where to report Health issues Accessibility difficulties Time/inconvenience Mistrust of Police & other Services Negative experiences of reporting Feeling Mistrust in authorities Fear of court process Normalised to abuse Sense of ‘that’s just how it is’ Secondary Victimisation
The numbers Hate Crime - all strands 20112012 2013 Hate TypeCrime Non- Crime TotalCrime Non- Crime Total 2011-12 % +/- Crime Non- Crime Total 2012-13 % +/- Disability271340612586115.0624911129.1 Race688145833868320118842.679439511980.8 Religion1832115122728.621173840.7 Sexual Orientation79211001214416565.0102531556.5 Transgender24113531154631.42817452.2 Other/Not recorded444486387147.910340143101.4 All Hate Crime 88019710771159424158347.0111056716866.5
Types of incident Essex Police - recorded disability hate incidents, 2013 IncidentsDescriptors Non-reportable hate incident MH9 Bullying / Antisocial behaviour LD13 Physical21 Sensory2 TOTAL45 1 st Harassment warning (not counted as crime) MH1 Harassment LD2 Physical1 Sensory TOTAL4 TOTAL Non -crime49 CrimesMH83x assault, 3x harassment, 2x damage LD247x assault, 14x harassment Physical282x assault, 21x harassment Sensory21x harassment, 1x damage TOTAL Crime62 TOTAL All incidents111
Why Is Hate Crime Different To Other Crime? Hate crime is about peoples personal characteristics that they cannot change, causing greater psychological harm. Hate crime is about hostility & prejudice against whole groups of people, not just individuals. Hate crime is often targeted at vulnerable members of society, who may have no voice.