Racism Race Movements in America ◦ Asian ◦ Native American
Rehabilitation Act Individuals with Disabilities Act Special schools, buses, job tracks (trainings) Access to all spaces- Title III housing codes
“Current” action for Equality Affirmative action refers to policies that take factors including race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation or national origin into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group in areas of employment, education, and business, usually justified as countering the effects of a history of discrimination.
An organization whose primary purpose is to promote animosity, hostility, and malice against persons belonging to a racial, religious, ethnic, national origin, sexual orientation, gender, mental or physical disability group which differs from that of the members of the organization.
Protected classes for the purpose of imposition of state criminal liability include: race, nationality, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, gender, mental and physical disability.
What sets hate crimes apart from other acts of violence is the psychological damage that they leave behind. Certain types of emotional reactions are more frequent among survivors of hate crimes. post-traumatic stress
Hate crime laws ◦ laws that enhance the penalties imposed by the courts for individuals convicted of acts of bias-related violence.
Most states already invoke penalty enhancements for certain classes of people. Some of the classes include: Law Enforcement Pregnant Women
Survivors of hate crimes are less likely than victims of other types of violence to report attacks against them to the police It has been estimated that up to 80% of bias- crimes are never reported to the authorities
Many hate crime survivors suffer the trauma of victimization in silence Hate crimes send a message and incite fear on an entire community of people Non-Hate Crimes are not directed to an entire class of people.
Confidentiality Anonymous hotlines or ways of reporting Education and awareness in the community Training for Law Enforcement Being non-judgmental