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Chapter 8 VOTING, CAMPAIGNS, AND ELECTIONS Behavioral Focus: Approaches to Understanding Voting Behavior © 2011 Taylor & Francis
Three Schools of American Voting Behavior Columbia School—Stresses the role of group influences (sociological factors) on voting. Rational Choice Theory— (economized logic based calculations). Individuals vote for those candidates who will maximize benefits; conversely, the cost of voting must be reduced. This is premised on the assumption of a rational voter. University of Michigan School—Attitudes (psychological attachments) affect voting. © 2011 Taylor & Francis
Columbia School Stresses the role of group influences (sociological factors) on voting Relies on group identification (remember collective action from Chapter 6) Individual preferences have little impact on voting Political campaigns are unlikely to persuade voters to change their support or radically alter their choices of candidates. © 2011 Taylor & Francis
Rational Choice Theory Individuals vote for those candidates who will maximize benefits; conversely, the cost of voting must be reduced. Voter evaluates candidate based upon retrospective voting (one election cycle) to determine if he/she will maximize self-interests (the benefits). Considers voting myopic or concerned with short-term benefits The probability of supporting a candidate is determined by the sum of subtracting the benefits from the costs. Therefore: If sum is positive, voter will support the candidate. If sum is negative, candidate will not receive the individual’s vote. © 2011 Taylor & Francis
Rational Choice Theory Civic duty (social responsibility) of a citizen voting is considered a benefit. Rational choice theory states it is rational for a person to abstain from voting if the costs of voting outweigh the benefits of supporting any one candidate. © 2011 Taylor & Francis
University of Michigan School Attitudes (psychological attachments) affect voting Party identification significantly influences an individual’s vote. Psychological attachments are formed early in life and thus party attachment and voting trends may be seen as long-term associations. Yet, short-term factors (economic downturns or other crisis) may also influence voting © 2011 Taylor & Francis
Voting Turnout in the U.S.
Voting Turnout in the U.S. cont.
How do Voters Make Up Their Minds? Two types of voting: Sophisticated voters: Individuals cast their vote based upon understanding the issues and knowing the candidate’s stance on the issues. Unsophisticated voters: Individuals vote, not according to issues, but based upon their perceptions of the candidate. © 2011 Taylor & Francis
How do Voters Make Up Their Minds? Information: Heuristics—voting cues; shortcuts to gain information on a candidate’s position or ideology. Party identification Ideology schema: an established “package” of ideas re candidate Candidate appearance Endorsements (newspaper editorials, organizations, individuals) Polling (issues) Issue knowledge © 2011 Taylor & Francis
In the U.S. Voter Turnout is Low
What are Some Ways to Improve Voting? Premise: a democratic government relies upon citizen participation to be successful Political scientists believe that voter turnout will be more likely to increase if the cost of voting is reduced. © 2011 Taylor & Francis
History of Voter Turnout in American Elections
What are Some Ways to Improve Voting? Some institutional changes or mechanisms that have led to increased voter turnout in other countries: Compulsory voting Fines for not voting Changing the day of voting Multiple days for voting Have all elections on one day per year Accessibility of information Increase the numbers of political parties Easier voter registration © 2011 Taylor & Francis
What are Some Ways to Improve Voting? Registering to vote is the most significant impairment to increased levels of voting in the United States. Congress reduced the burden of registering to vote by passing the National Voter Registration Act (Motor Voter Bill) of 1993 So, what are other avenues to increase voter turnout in the United States? © 2011 Taylor & Francis
Models of Voting Behavior Dr. Bradley Best Asst. Professor Political Science Buena Vista University.
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CHAPTER 10 NOTES. Elections and Voting Behavior Elections are the process through which power in government changes hands. Such a change is possible because.
VOTING BEHAVIOR THEORIES In the United States, 1940s to today.
Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning VOTING AND ELECTIONS Chapter Nine.
Political Participation Why Do People Vote?. Today Forms of political participation Explaining the individual decision to vote or abstain.
Elections and Voting Behavior Chapter 9. How American Elections Work Three types of elections: – Select party nominees (primary elections) – Select officeholders.
THE AMERICAN VOTER Heuristics and Cognitive Biases Among The American Electorate.
The Right to Vote. Suffrage & Franchise- The right to vote What portion of the population originally had the right to vote in our country? Since that.
CH 6 SEC 4 VOTER BEHAVIOR. While low voter turnout is a serious problem, many factors influence the American who do vote.
Elections and Voting Behavior Chapter 10. How American Elections Work Three types of elections: – Select party nominees (primary elections) – Select officeholders.
Elections and Voting Behavior Chapter 10. How American Elections Work Three types of elections: –Select party nominees (primary elections) –Select officeholders.
TOPIC 2 POLITICAL BEHAVIOR. PARTY SYSTEMS One-party systems are usually found in nations with authoritarian governments. Minor parties exist in two-party.
Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Chapter 5 Political Participation American Government: Policy & Politics, Eighth Edition TANNAHILL.
Topic 2: Voting & Elections (Part 1). Part 1: The Right to Vote & Qualifications How have voting rights changed over time? What restrictions exist on.
Why People vote Suffering through Suffrage. Clearly Stated Learning Objectives Examine the 2008 Election in the broader context of American electoral.
The Right to Vote Suffrage & Franchise- The right to vote What portion of the population originally had the right to vote in our country? Since that time,
Political Participation & Voting Behavior How We Access Democracy.
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Presentation by Eric Miller, Blinn College, Bryan, Texas. Chapter 7 Political Participation and Voting: Expressing the Popular Will.
Elections and Voting Behavior Chapter 10. How American Elections Work Three types of elections ( unlike most democracies ): Select party nominees (primary.
Elections & Voting Behavior Part 1. What do Elections do? They institutionalize political activity They provide regular access to political power, so.
VOTING AND PARTICIPATION Chapter 11. The Practice and Theory of Voting The Constitution and Voting Left choices to the states Led to a complicated.
Voters and Voter Behavior Chapter 6. History of Voting Rights The Framers purposefully left the power of voting to the States Suffrage and Franchise.
Voter Turnout Accounting for Voter Turnout Demographic Socioeconomic Psychological.
Voters and Voter Behavior Chapter 6. History Suffrage – The right to vote Suffrage – The right to vote Electorate – potential voting population Electorate.
VOTING AND ELECTIONS. To Vote or not to Vote Expansion of Suffrage Expansion of Suffrage All White men (1830s) All White men (1830s) All men (1860s) All.
Voting behaviour Empirical questions What explains vote choices? Socialisation/attachment Social structure (class, religion etc.) Electoral change (dealignment,
How do voters make decisions???. Campaigns in Voting Theories VotersRole of Campaigns IgnorantTo manipulate.
Presentation Pro © 2001 by Prentice Hall, Inc. American Government C H A P T E R 6 Voters and Voter Behavior.
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Presentation Pro © 2001 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Magruder’s American Government C H A P T E R 6 Voters and Voter Behavior.
Elections and Voting Behavior Chapters 8 & 9. How American Elections Work Three types of elections: Select party nominees (primary elections) Select.
WHO VOTES AND WHY? PG THE PRO AND CON OF VOTING The U.S. has low voter turnout (-)Downs: is it rational to not vote? If indifferent, then one.
Voter Behavior and Turnout Fitz- AP GOV. Whether to Vote: A Citizen’s First Choice 15 th -Extended to African Americans 19 th -Extended to Women 26 th.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman.
III. Influence on Voters. Objective Students will understand the different factors that influence the way people vote in our countries elections.
Definition Expression of attitudes concerning government and politics Many “publics” Influenced by political socialization and demography.
U.S. Govt. & Citizenship Week 1 Bell #3 11/02/12 What would be most likely to cause you to want to vote? Hand in your Bells.
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HASSAN IBRAHIM Rational Choice Theory. What is it ? Well rational choice theory is a one of the four main theories of voting behaviour It is when a the.
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Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Longman PoliticalScienceInteractive Magleby & Light Government by the People Chapter 8 Public.
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