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Greek Art. Precursors –Cycladic marble statues 2700- 2500 BCE –beginning of long history of marble sculpture in Greece.

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Presentation on theme: "Greek Art. Precursors –Cycladic marble statues 2700- 2500 BCE –beginning of long history of marble sculpture in Greece."— Presentation transcript:

1 Greek Art

2 Precursors –Cycladic marble statues 2700- 2500 BCE –beginning of long history of marble sculpture in Greece

3 Minoan

4 Lion Gate Mycenae 1300-1250 BCE

5 Geometric Era geometric shapes abstract motifs no unified conception of human small statues large black-figure vases

6 Geometric Statuette of a man and centaur, ca. 750 B.C.E; Late Geometric


8 Dipylon Vase 740 BCE

9 detail

10 Areas of Greek Influence during Archaic Period

11 Archaic Early Archaic art is referred to as “Daedalic” after Daedulus –legendary artist Formal Stiff Influence of Egypt Monumental sculpture and architecture Korai “archaic smiles” stone temples Doric & Ionic orders, red-figure painting invented

12 Vase Painting-black figure, red-figure Art historians usually talk about the “pigment” a painter applied to clay surface as glaze, but black areas on Greek pots are not pigment or glaze but a slip (watery clay) firing process of both red- and black-figure vessels used three stages: first, oxidizing stage, air was allowed into the kiln, turning the whole vase the color of the clay second stage, green wood was introduced into the chamber and the oxygen supply was reduced, causing the object to turn black in the smoky environment. third stage, air was reintroduced into the kiln; the coarser material portions turned back to orange while the smoother slip areas remained black

13 Symposium 550 BCE

14 Terracotta hydria (water jar), ca. 510–500 B.C.E

15 Andokides Painter, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (Athenian bilingual amphora) from Oriveto, Italy ca.525-520 BCE, 1’9”

16 Euthymides, Three revelers (red figure amphora, 510 BCE 2’

17 Menkaure and Khamerernebty ca. 2490-2472 BCE

18 Lady of Auxerre ca.650-625 BCE Daedalic style –all great early sculpture attributed to legendary artist Daedalus before names of artists were recorded -bridge between geometric and archaic

19 Kouros 590-580 BCE

20 Side view

21 Calf-bearer 560BCE

22 Peplos Kore 530 BCE

23 Kroisos (540 BCE) “Stay and mourn beside the tomb of dead Kroisos, whom raging Ares destroyed one day, fighting in the foremost ranks.”

24 Classical style  Order, clarity -proportion, symmetry  Humanism  Realism  Idealism c. 450-400 BCE –classical or high classical period, corresponds to the high point or golden age of Greek culture

25 Kritios Boy from the Acropolis, Athens, c. 480 BCE Parian marble, 337/8 (86 cm) high, Acropolis Museum Athens


27 Blond Kouros 480 BCE


29 Proportion-comparative relationship or ratio of things to one another -used to represent what is considered ideal or beautiful Ancient Greeks tied their vision of ideal beauty to what they considered the proper proportions of the human body Polykleitos is credited with the derivation of a canon of proportions – a set of rules about body parts and their dimensions relative to one another that became the standard for creating the ideal figure. The physical manifestation of his canon was the Doryphorus. Every part of the body is either a specific fraction or multiple of every other part Ideally the head is one eighth of the total height of the body and the width from shoulder-to-shoulder should not exceed one-fourth of the body’s height.

30 Balance -distribution of weight of the actual or apparent weight of the elements of a composition Polykleitos Doryphoros 450 -440 BCE Roman copy after bronze Greek original, marble 6’6”


32 Polycleitus, Doryphorus, roman copy after a bronze Greek original of ca.450-440 BCE [Beauty arises from] the commensurability [symmetria] of the parts such as that of finger to finger, and of all the fingers to the palm and the wrist and of these to the forearm, and of the forearm to the upper arm, and in fact, of everything to everything else, just as it is written in the Canon of Polykleitos…Polykeitos supported his treatise [by making] a statue according to the tenets of his treatise, and called the statue, like the work, the Canon.(Galen 2 nd c.)

33 Leonardo da Vinci Proportion of the Human Figure (after Vitruvius) c.1485-1490 Pen and ink 13 ½” x 9 ¾ “

34 Diskobolos 470 BCE

35 Zeus or Poseidon 460BCE

36 Grave stele of a little girl ca. 450–440 B.C.E

37 Aphrodite of Knidos (Roman copy of original ca. 350-340 BCE)

38 The Golden Mean For ideal proportions in architecture Requires that a small part of a work should relate to a larger part of the work as the larger part relates to the whole



41 columns typical of the temples divided into 3 kinds: Doric, Ionian, Corinthian Doric order is simple and severe  no base, directly on the stylobate, fluted shaft tapering to top, a capital which consisted of a curved member surmounted by a square block (abacus) upper end of shaft and the capital were cut in one block  on top of capital - the entablature, the architrave (left plain except for small moulding at the top, decorated at regular intervals with a panel from which 6 little knobs (guttae) reached down, the frieze –consisted of triglyphs with vertical groovings alternating with metopes which could be plain or painted or sculptured,  the cornice faced slightly down to protect the face of the building from rain water Ionic originating in Asia Minor and Aegean islands more delicate and ornate; has a base in several tiers, volutes front and back Corinthian (ornate, capitals with acanthus leaves, on victory columns)  all three styles display a set of structural and decorative parts that stand in fixed relation to each other

42 Three Orders of Greek Architecture

43 Temple of Hera, Paestum, ca. 550 BCE -Archaic

44 Parthenon. The most perfect building? ( 447-438 BCE) –temple dedicated to Athena (parthenos –maiden)  commissioned by Pericles, designed by Ictinus & Kallicrates, embellished by Phidias  harmonic proportion  rectangle delimited on all four sides by colonnaded walkway  17 columns at sides, and 8 at ends  reflects classical reverence for clarity and symmetry  two rooms –one with huge statue of Athena covered in gold, perhaps with ivory head, jewels for eyes; outside paintings, decorations were spectacularly coloured -not all white marble  the other room contained Athens’ treasury  temple is Doric but has some Ionic features  classical ideal of life as harmonious balance between the counteracting forces of freedom and necessity  no striving for the infinite as in Gothic architecture –perfection of limited form



47 Replica of Athena, Parthenos in Nashville


49 Influence of Classical Style…. Pantheon, Rome, ca. 118-125 CE, Dome height 143 ft.

50 Michaelangelo, David, 1501-1504

51 Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, 1772

52 A.J. Davis and Ithiel Town, Federal Hall, 28 Wall Street, NYC, 1842 Greek Revival

53 Theatre Design

54 Polykleitos the Younger, theatre, Epidauros, Greece, ca. 350 BCE

55 Hellenistic - (323-31 BCE) -new subjects in sculpture and painting emotional active dynamic not so idealized naturalistic -often copied by and for Romans who loved the style Architects break the rules of classical orders

56 Laocoon (100-200 BCE)

57 Winged Victory (Victory of Samothrace) 190 BCE, marble

58 Gallic Chieftain Killing Himself and his Wife 230-220BCE

59 Old Market Woman, ca. 150-100 BCE, Marble, 4’1/2”, Metropolitan

60 Defeated Boxer 100-50BCE

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