11ArchaicEarly Archaic art is referred to as “Daedalic” after Daedulus –legendary artist Formal Stiff Influence of Egypt Monumental sculpture and architecture Korai “archaic smiles” stone temples Doric & Ionic orders, red-figure painting invented
12Vase Painting-black figure, red-figure Art historians usually talk about the “pigment” a painter applied to clay surface as glaze, but black areas on Greek pots are not pigment or glaze but a slip (watery clay) firing process of both red- and black-figure vessels used three stages: first, oxidizing stage, air was allowed into the kiln, turning the whole vase the color of the clay second stage, green wood was introduced into the chamber and the oxygen supply was reduced, causing the object to turn black in the smoky environment. third stage, air was reintroduced into the kiln; the coarser material portions turned back to orange while the smoother slip areas remained black
29Proportion-comparative relationship or ratio of things to one another -used to represent what is considered ideal or beautifulAncient Greeks tied their vision of ideal beauty to what they considered the proper proportions of the human body Polykleitos is credited with the derivation of a canon of proportions – a set of rules about body parts and their dimensions relative to one another that became the standard for creating the ideal figure. The physical manifestation of his canon was the Doryphorus. Every part of the body is either a specific fraction or multiple of every other part Ideally the head is one eighth of the total height of the body and the width from shoulder-to-shoulder should not exceed one-fourth of the body’s height.
30Balance -distribution of weight of the actual or apparent weight of the elements of a composition Polykleitos Doryphoros BCE Roman copy after bronze Greek original, marble 6’6”Perhaps the first artist to observe the body’s shifting of weight in order to achieve balance and to develop a set of rules to apply this observation to representations of the figure. In Doryphoros, Polykleitos featured his weightshift principle. Observed that when the body is at rest, one leg bears the weight of the body and the other is relaxed. Further, in order for the body to balance itself, the upper torso shifts, as if corresponding to an S curve, so that the arm opposite the tensed leg is tensed and the one opposite the relaxed leg is relaxed. Thus with the weight shift principle, tension, tension and relaxation, and relaxation are read diagonally across the body. Overall balance is achieved.
31 Polykleitos's "canon" of beauty: golden section analysis Two art historians, D.E. Gordon and F. deL. Cunningham, have constructed an elaborate analysis of a presumably accurate copy of Polykleitos's famous sculpture called the Diadoumenos, hoping to show how the artist may have conceived his otherwise mysterious rule for achieving beauty in the human figure. Their article appeared in The Art Quarterly 25 (1962): under the title "Polykleitos' Diadoumenos -- Measurement and Animation."
32Polycleitus, Doryphorus, roman copy after a bronze Greek original of ca.450-440 BCE [Beauty arises from] the commensurability [symmetria] of the parts such as that of finger to finger, and of all the fingers to the palm and the wrist and of these to the forearm, and of the forearm to the upper arm, and in fact, of everything to everything else, just as it is written in the Canon of Polykleitos…Polykeitos supported his treatise [by making] a statue according to the tenets of his treatise, and called the statue, like the work, the Canon.(Galen 2nd c.)
33Leonardo da Vinci Proportion of the Human Figure (after Vitruvius) c Leonardo da Vinci Proportion of the Human Figure (after Vitruvius) c Pen and ink 13 ½” x 9 ¾ “Symmetry –similarity of form or arrangement on either side of a dividing line or plane or to correspondence of parts in size, shape and positionPure formal symmetry here –exact correspondence between left and right
37Aphrodite of Knidos (Roman copy of original ca. 350-340 BCE)
38The Golden MeanFor ideal proportions in architecture Requires that a small part of a work should relate to a larger part of the work as the larger part relates to the wholeTo create the golden mean, a line is divided so that the ratio of the shorter segment AB is to the larger segment BC as the larger segment BC is to the whole AC. Line segment BC is 1.68 times the length of segment AB. Segment BC is the “mean” in the sense that its length lies between the smaller segment AB and the entire line AC. The Greeks considered segment BC to be “golden” in that its use created what they considered to be ideal proportions in architecture.
39Golden rectangle –width of the rectangle is exactly 1 Golden rectangle –width of the rectangle is exactly times its height. The triangle can be created by rotating the diagonal of the half square on the left to the base on the right point. This ideal rectangle became the basis for the floor plans of Greek temples and represented the artistic embodiment of the Greek maxim “moderation in all things”.Root five rectangle –length is (square root of 5) times its width. Proportions of root 5 serve as frame for various works of art and architecture –Parthenon –façade is constructed of 8 columns. The four in the center fit within the central square of the root five rectangle.
41columns typical of the temples divided into 3 kinds: Doric, Ionian, Corinthian Doric order is simple and severeno base, directly on the stylobate, fluted shaft tapering to top, a capital which consisted of a curved member surmounted by a square block (abacus) upper end of shaft and the capital were cut in one blockon top of capital - the entablature, the architrave (left plain except for small moulding at the top, decorated at regular intervals with a panel from which 6 little knobs (guttae) reached down, the frieze –consisted of triglyphs with vertical groovings alternating with metopes which could be plain or painted or sculptured,the cornice faced slightly down to protect the face of the building from rain water Ionic originating in Asia Minor and Aegean islands more delicate and ornate; has a base in several tiers, volutes front and backCorinthian (ornate, capitals with acanthus leaves, on victory columns) all three styles display a set of structural and decorative parts that stand in fixed relation to each other
43Temple of Hera, Paestum, ca. 550 BCE -Archaic DoricHeavy, squat, massive
44Parthenon. The most perfect building Parthenon. The most perfect building? ( BCE) –temple dedicated to Athena (parthenos –maiden)commissioned by Pericles, designed by Ictinus & Kallicrates, embellished by Phidiasharmonic proportionrectangle delimited on all four sides by colonnaded walkway17 columns at sides, and 8 at ends reflects classical reverence for clarity and symmetrytwo rooms –one with huge statue of Athena covered in gold, perhaps with ivory head, jewels for eyes; outside paintings, decorations were spectacularly coloured -not all white marble the other room contained Athens’ treasury temple is Doric but has some Ionic featuresclassical ideal of life as harmonious balance between the counteracting forces of freedom and necessityno striving for the infinite as in Gothic architecture –perfection of limited form
54Polykleitos the Younger, theatre, Epidauros , Greece, ca. 350 BCE
55Hellenistic - ( BCE)-new subjects in sculpture and painting emotional active dynamic not so idealized naturalistic -often copied by and for Romans who loved the style Architects break the rules of classical orders
56Laocoon ( BCE)Laocoon (c BCE), Based on a story from Homer about the Trojan War. Laocoon was a Trojan priest who opposed accepting the Trojan Horse as a peace offering. The Greek gods sent serpents in the night to kill Laocoon and his sons for opposing the acceptance of the Horse.
57Winged Victory (Victory of Samothrace) 190 BCE, marble Flow, movement, drapery, naturalism and ideal beautySet on base that would have represented the prow of a warship to crown the victorsThe upper basin of a fountain, so flowing water all aroundExpressions of humanity
58Gallic Chieftain Killing Himself and his Wife 230-220BCE Enemies portrayed heroically
59Old Market Woman, ca. 150-100 BCE, Marble, 4’1/2”, Metropolitan Not idealized
60Defeated Boxer BCEDefeat –not shown in classical works