Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Getting Started— Fallacies in Films: Monty Python’s Argument Clinic Monty Python’s Argument Clinic (6:08) The Fallacy Project: Examples of Fallacies in.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Getting Started— Fallacies in Films: Monty Python’s Argument Clinic Monty Python’s Argument Clinic (6:08) The Fallacy Project: Examples of Fallacies in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Getting Started— Fallacies in Films: Monty Python’s Argument Clinic Monty Python’s Argument Clinic (6:08) The Fallacy Project: Examples of Fallacies in the Media The Fallacy Project: Examples of Fallacies in the Media (6:25) Logical Fallacies Part I Logical Fallacies Part I (4:22) Logical Fallacies Part II Logical Fallacies Part II (4:15)

2 Name that Fallacy Advanced Composition: Critical Reasoning & Writing If a language provides a label for a complex concept, that could make it easier to think about the concept, because the mind can handle it as a single package when juggling a set of ideas, rather than having to keep each of its components in the air separately. It can also give a concept an additional label in long-term memory, making it more easily retrievable.

3 Definition: oversimplifies a complex issue so that only two choices appear possible FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

4 Definition: Misleading/manipul ative label or definition FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

5 Definition: Appeal to audience’s sympathetic feelings in order to support a claim that should be decided on more relevant or objective grounds FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

6 Definition: Claim that does not follow from its premises or is supported by irrelevant premises FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

7 Definition: Broad generalization on the basis of too little evidence FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

8 Definition: Claiming a small, often unrepresentative sample, is true for the whole FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

9 Definition: Sequential relationship is mistaken for a causal relationship FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

10 Definition: Merely a descriptive association and offers no proof of the connection between two things being compared FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

11 Definition: A simplistic and improbable (sometimes horrible) prediction based on a series of steps. This fallacy ignores the complexity of the developments in any long chain of events FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

12 Definition: Reason provided simply restates claim in different words FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

13 Definition: Oversimplify an opponent’s argument to make it easier to refute or ridicule FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

14 Definition: Discredit an opponent or an opposing view in advance FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

15 Definition: Individuals (often movie stars or celebrities) are presented as experts in fields in which they are not FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

16 Definition: Argument directed at the character of an opponent rather than at the quality of the reasoning FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

17 Definition: Throwing an audience off track by raising an unrelated or irrelevant point FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

18 Definition: Claim that something is popular substitutes evidence FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

19 Definition: Persuades an audience to accept as true a claim that hasn’t been proved false or vice versa FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

20 Definition: Appeal to the fundamental beliefs, biases, and prejudices of the audience in order to sway opinion through a feeling of solidarity among those in the group FALLACIES OF PATHOS 1.Argument to the People (Appealing to Stirring Symbols) 2.Appeal to Ignorance 3.Appeal to Popularity—Bandwagon 4.Appeal to Pity 5.Red Herring FALLACIES OF ETHOS 6.Appeal to False Authority 7.Ad Hominem 8.Poisoning the Well 9.Straw Man FALLACIES OF LOGOS 10. Hasty Generalization 11. Part for the Whole 12.Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 13.Begging the Question—Circular Reasoning 14.False Dilemma—Either/Or 15.Slippery Slope 16.False Analogy 17.Non Sequitur 18.Loaded Label or Definition

21 Tip: The difference between Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (one of presumption) and Non Sequitur fallacies (one of ambiguity) is that, whereas the Post Hoc fallacy is due to lack of causal connection, in the non sequitur fallacy the error is due to lack of logical connection.

22 Name the Fallacy: Since 9/11 we’ve tried and convicted few terrorists, therefore our defense system must be working.

23 Name that Fallacy: “Larry is trying really hard, so he should get straight A’s.”

24 Name that Fallacy: “A group of self-appointed lifestyle police are pushing to control many aspects of our daily lives. If they succeed, we lose our basic right of free choice. Today they’re targeting smoking. What’s next? Red meat? Leather? Coffee? If fifty million smokers can lose their rights anyone can.” (From an ad for the National Smokers Alliance.)

25 Name that Fallacy Either I keep smoking, or I’ll get fat. I don’t want to get fat, so I better keep smoking.

26 Name that Fallacy: “His books about ancient Egypt are worthless because he is a convicted forger and embezzler.”

27 Name that Fallacy: If such actions were not illegal, then they would not be prohibited by the law.”

28 Name that Fallacy: Anyone who truly cares about preserving the American way of life will vote Republican this fall.

29 Name that Fallacy: America, love it or leave it!

30 Name that Fallacy: “All Latinos are volatile people.” (Former Senator Jesse Helms, on Mexican protests against Senate Foreign Affairs subcommittee hearings on corruption south of the border.)

31 Name that Fallacy: Bill: "I believe that abortion is morally acceptable. After all, a woman should have a right to her own body." Jane: "I disagree completely. Dr. Johan Skarn says that abortion is always morally wrong, regardless of the situation. He has to be right, after all, he is a respected expert in his field." Bill: "I've never heard of Dr. Skarn. Who is he?" Jane: "He's the guy that won the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on cold fusion."

32 Name that Fallacy: “Apple—the Computer for the Rest of Us.”

33 Name that Fallacy: Support Our Troops.

34 Name that Fallacy: "But officer, I don't deserve a ticket; everyone goes this speed. If I went any slower, I wouldn't be going with the stream of traffic."

35 Name that Fallacy: “You know, Professor Brown, I not passing this class and I really need to get an A. If I don’t get an A in this class, then I will not be able to transfer to UCSD next fall and my family will be very disappointed with me.”

36 Name that Fallacy: Just as instructors can prune sentences for poor grammar, so the principal was entitled to find certain articles inappropriate for publication—in this situation because they might reveal the identity of pregnant students and because references to sexual activity were deemed improper for high school students to see.

37 Name that Fallacy: “Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can’t understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that.”

38 Name that Fallacy: "We admit that this measure is popular. But we also urge you to note that there are so many bond issues on this ballot that the whole thing is getting ridiculous."

39 Name that Fallacy: “I do not have much information on this except the general statement of the agency that there is nothing in the files to disprove his communist connections.” (In 1950, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy’s response when asked about the 40 th name on his list of 81 Americans he claimed were communists working for the United Stated Department of State.)

40 Name that Fallacy: " Every player on the team is a superstar and a great player, so the team is a great team."


Download ppt "Getting Started— Fallacies in Films: Monty Python’s Argument Clinic Monty Python’s Argument Clinic (6:08) The Fallacy Project: Examples of Fallacies in."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google