Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Linguistics Croft&Cruse 3: Conceptualization and construal operations, pt. 1."— Presentation transcript:
Cognitive Linguistics Croft&Cruse 3: Conceptualization and construal operations, pt. 1
3.1 Introduction Semantics is conceptualization (Langacker) All linguistic units evoke a semantic frame Human beings employ a variety of construal operations in language Examples: when a language has alternative expressions for the “same” situation (dad/father, spend/waste, leaves/foliage, lives/is living, etc.)
3.1 Introduction There is cross-linguistic and language-internal variation as to whether construal plus truth- conditional semantic shift is expressed covertly or overtly. Coercion – covert (not grammatically obligatory) expression of construal and semantic shift Conversion – overt (with grammatical markers) expression of construal and semantic shift Example: count vs. mass is covert (coercion) in English, but overt (conversion) in Russian: soloma ‘straw’ vs. solominka ‘a straw’; kričal ‘cried’ vs. kriknul ‘cried once’
3.1 Introduction Both coercion and conversion involve construal. Talmy, Langacker (and others) have explored the possible construal operations Image schemas impose a conceptualization of experience; they are “abstract” because they are schematic, but they are “not abstract” because they are embodied (see list on p. 45) – these relate to the possible (source) domains as well.
3.1 Introduction Croft&Cruse (p. 46) suggest a classification of construal operations : –Attention/Salience –Judgement/Comparison (identity) –Perspective/Situatedness –Constitution/Gestalt These are 4 basic cognitive abilities They are described in the remainder of the chapter
3.2 Attention/Salience Attention includes: –Selecting an object of attention –Having a focus of attention in a scope of attention –Selecting coarse or fine-grained attention –Fixing or shifting attention
3.2.1 Selection Selecting something = ignoring the rest This can involve selecting the appropriate facet or domain of a word (e.g., Paris as a location, government, or population)
3.2.1 Selection Q: What is metonymy?
3.2.1 Selection Q: What is metonymy? A: Selection of a different concept profile than the one usually symbolized by a word. The french fries is getting impatient.
3.2.2 Scope of attention (dominion) The scope of attention determines what is accessible to attention, what the search domain is. A reference point can determine the scope, as in the possessors in my watch, your anxiety, Lincoln’s assassination.
3.2.3 Scalar adjustment Q: What is a quantitative scalar adjustment?
3.2.3 Scalar adjustment Q: What is a quantitative scalar adjustment? A: An adjustment of how coarse or fine-grained a construal is (E.g., along the road, across the road, through the road)
3.2.3 Scalar adjustment Q: What is a qualitative scalar adjustment?
3.2.3 Scalar adjustment Q: What is a qualitative scalar adjustment? A: This is adjustment of attention along the range of schematicity, according to superordinate or subordinate categorization.
3.2.4 Dynamic attention Q: What is fictive motion?
3.2.4 Dynamic attention Q: What is fictive motion? A: Dynamic construal of a static scene, e.g., The road winds through the valley and then climbs over the high mountains.
3.2.4 Dynamic attention Q: What is the difference between sequential and summary scanning?
3.2.4 Dynamic attention Q: What is the difference between sequential and summary scanning? A: Sequential scanning sees something unfold through time (the bridge collapsed); summary scanning sees an event as a whole (the collapse of the bridge)
3.3 Judgement/comparison Comparison is a fundamental cognitive function, and has linguistic correlates in categorization, metaphor, and figure- ground alignment.
3.3.1 Categorization Categorization can involve full sanction – when an item is clearly a member of a category, or partial sanction – when a member is an extension of a category.
3.3.2 Metaphor Q: What is metaphor?
3.3.2 Metaphor Q: What is metaphor? A: Metaphor is a mapping between a source domain and a target domain.
3.3.3 Figure-ground alignment Q: What properties are usually associated with figure vs. ground?
3.3.3 Figure-ground alignment Q: What properties are usually associated with figure vs. ground? A: Figure is usually less known, smaller, more mobile, simpler, more salient, and more recent in awareness than ground. Linguistic realizations include main (figure) vs. subordinate (ground) clauses, prepositions.