2Power ShiftsSo far, the power has been very divided in Medieval Europe.Feudal Lords, Nobles, Kings, and the Church all imposed taxes and made the laws.These often contradicted or overlapped each other.Now, the power is becoming more centralized as strong kings begin to consolidate power and put nobles and feudal lords into subservient roles.
3England in TransitionEdward the Confessor is part Norman, part Anglo-Saxon.Dies in 1066 w/ no childrenHarold of Wessex (Edward’s brother-in-law) claims the throne.He is an Anglo-Saxon noble, and his sister was the queen.William, Duke of Normandy, (Edward’s cousin) claims that Edward told him he was the heir, and that Harold knows this and swore to Edward to uphold his wishes.Anglo-Saxon nobles do NOT like this.Harold of Wessex is recognized as King by Anglo-Saxon nobles instead.
4William wants to be a Conqueror William is MAD about this. He really wants to be king.William gathers his cavalry, infantry, and archers then crosses the English Channel.Battle of Hastings:He kills Harold in battle, and conquers England for himself. Becomes King.Known as William the Conqueror.Eventually manages to blend Norman & Anglo-Saxon culture & language a little bit. Starts what becomes the English language.
5Battle of Hastings: Harold has about 8,000 infantry troops. Almost all wielding a Danish battle axe or a sword.The position themselves on top of a hill.William shows up with about 7500 soldiers—a mix of, archers, infantry, and cavalry.William divides his troops into 3 groups, each with a line of archers in the front to attack first.Eventually, Harold is killed in battle by (probably) an arrow to the eye and a knight hacking him to death with a sword.William the Conqueror claims England for himself. He is crowned King on Christmas Day.
7Feudalism in EnglandWilliam the Conqueror brings feudalism into England.Changes it so that the King has all the power instead of the nobles.Made sure to give his supporters fiefs scattered throughout England so that no opposition could unite against him.Wanted to find out how wealthy everyone was, so sent out commissioners to get info to determine how much tax everyone should pay.Domesday (Doomsday) Book: collected results of the survey. (Easier to escape doom’s day than the king’s commissioners).Listed every castle, field, and pigpen in the Kingdom.
8Reforms Under William’s Successors Henry I: Ruled fromMade gov’t more efficient. Set up exchequer to handle all finances, and established a legal system. (No more feudal justice)Henry II:Nobles could pay to avoid military service; he used mercenaries instead.Revamped court systemEstablish a circuit for judges to travel; appointed juries in each district (petit and grand)Grand jury: submitted names of suspected criminals to judges.Petit jury: civil cases (land disputes, etc.)Criminal cases still determined by ordeal or combat for a long time.
9Henry II’s TroublesTried to have trials of certain clergy members take place in royal courts instead of church courts.Opposed by his once BFF, Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury.4 knights, trying to help the king, murdered Becket without the king’s knowledge.Becket named a saint and his shrine became a popular place for pilgrims.Henry II is almost excommunicated by the church, and stops trying to have trials moved.Henry’s sons plot to overthrow him.His wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, held lands in France so he was pulled into French wars.
10King John (reigned 1199-1216) Son of Henry II Needed money to pay for his war against FranceNobles revolted because they did not like John’s taxesAlso, some of John’s mistresses were married noblewomen, so their husbands were NOT happy and were eager to get revenge.Conflict with nobles was ended by the signing of the Magna Carta.
11Magna Carta (1215) Protected the rights of the nobles Some provisions pertained to the ordinary Englishman.Rights:No new/special tax w/o permission of the Great Council (made up of nobles and church leaders).King cannot take property w/o paying for it.Judicial rights: trial by jury of peers, no delay or selling of justice (pertained to the King as well).Viewed now as a very important document, and is an important part of the British constitution.Original purpose was not to establish a constitutional gov’t; just to protect the nobles in England.
12Parliament 1260s: Nobles revolted against Henry III, and seize throne. Simon de Montfort rules; expands the Great Council to include more representation.1265: de Montfort summons representatives from the middle class to join the nobles & clergy in the Great Council.2 knights from each shire2 regular citizens (burgesses) from several towns.Evolves over time to become the ParliamentUpper house: House of Lords (high nobles/clergy)Lower house: House of Commons (knights, burgesses)Cannot yet pass laws, but has the right to approve or deny taxes.
13Common lawEdward I (reign ): Divided the court into 3 sections.Exchequer: finances and tried tax casesCourt of Common Pleas: tried cases between private citizens.Court of the King’s Bench: tried cases concerning the King or the government.Each court was required to record verdicts and use decisions to help decide future cases.Became the code of Common Law: basis for legal system in UK and USA.
14Capetian Kings in France Last Carolingian died w/o an heir in 987.Nobles pick Hugh Capet to be King. Starts Capetian line of Kings.Capet ruled Ile-de-France (basically Paris, plus surrounding land). and had very little authority over the feudal lords that ruled the provinces. AlmostStarting uniting provinces and bringing them under his rule.Differed from other succession in Europe: did not divide kingdom among sons. Only the eldest son inherited.Remember, feudal system/private wars continued until strong kings emerged. This line has many strong kings.
15Philip Augustus:1179: Becomes king and is formally known as Philip II.Stops appointing nobles to gov’t positions, and hires middle class people instead.New officials owe ALL their influence and station in life to Philip, and are therefore SUPER loyal to him.Grants a lot of charters for towns--> Even more reason for the middle class to love him.Takes back most of Normandy from English, and starts to acquire what is now southern France.
16Gaining Royal Territory: Kings married daughters of great feudal lords. Added the fiefs in the dowry to royal lands.Claimed rights to fiefs when families died out without heirs.Government:Established loyal royal officials to rely on instead of feudal lords.Encouraged growth of towns, businesses knowing that the more wealth the average person had, the more wealth the government would get in taxes.Also, more royal territory=more royal wealth
17Louis IX Crowned in 1226. EXTREMELY religious. Declared a Saint 27 years after his death. ONLY French monarch to be declared a saint.Leads 2 Crusades, and persecutes heretics and Jews in France.Sent out officials to check on the different areas (like Charlemagne).Concerned with justice, and expands the royal courts.
18France and the Pope fight Philip IV: tried to add new taxes the clergy.Pope Boniface VIII: “Got has set popes over kings and kingdoms.”That is, “You can’t tax us. God says I’m above you.”Philip tries to capture Boniface; the pope escapes, but dies right afterward.
19Avignon PapacyBoniface VIII’s successor is Boniface IX. He dies less than year after elected.1305: The new pope elected, Clement V, is French.Clement refuses to go to Rome, and instead moves the papal enclave at Avignon (in France).It stays there for almost 70 years, but did officially return to Rome.Also called the Babylonian Captivity.Led to the Great Schism in which multiple people claimed to be pope.Was motivated by politics rather than theological disagreement.