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Genghis Khan and Mongol Eurasian Integration

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1 Genghis Khan and Mongol Eurasian Integration

2 DO NOW: AP M.C. QUESTION Which of the following is an accurate characterization of both the Incan and Yuan dynasties? Both civilizations developed strict social class hierarchies, in which upward mobility was difficult Peasant uprisings were responsible for the establishment of both civilizations Both the Yuan and the Inca depended on trade as their primary economic activity Both civilizations flourished under control of outside invaders.

3 DO NOW: AP M.C. QUESTION The Mongol Empire was divided into four Khanates, which governed all of the following lands except Russia Persia Japan Ukriane

4 QUICK WRITE: What would you argue are the two strongest impacts or most lasting legacies of Mongol rule?

5 Nomadic Peoples Nomadic economy and society
Organized into clans with related languages Central Asia’s steppes: good for grazing, little rain, few rivers Nomads and their animals; few settlements Nomads drove their herds in migratory cycles Lived mostly on animal products Also produced limited amounts of millet, pottery, leather goods, iron

6 Nomadic Peoples and Their Animals
Sheep Goats Horses Mare’s milk Flock survival

7 Nomadic Peoples and Their Housing and Clothing
Gers/Yurts Robes - dei

8 Caravan Trade Interaction
Nomads and settled peoples sought trade, were prominent on caravan routes

9 Nomadic Class System Fluidity of classes in nomadic society
Two social classes; nobles and commoners Autonomous clans and tribes

10 Religion Shamans Buddhism Nestorian Christianity By the tenth century
… Islam

11 Religion of Genghis Khan

12 Military Organization
Khan – “RULER” Organized vast confederation of individual tribes for expansion Outstanding cavalry forces Formidable military power

13 The Mongol Empires Genghis Khan and the making of the Mongol Empire
Genghis Khan unified Mongol tribes through alliances and conquests Why was unification necessary? Tribal group v. Mongol identity Khan’s personal mission Trade disruption Ecology –

14 Mongol Political Organization
Organized new military units and broke up tribal affiliations Units based on ten…100…1000… Leaders had close relationship with Genghis Chose high officials based on talent and loyalty Established capital at Karakorum


16 Mongol Strategy Horsemanship Archers Mobility Psychological warfare
Feigned withdrawal

17 Mongol Siege Warfare:

18 Mongol Siege Warfare:

19 Mongol Conquest of Northern China
Genghis Khan, Mongols raided the Jurchen in north China beginning in 1211 Controlled north China by 1220 South China was still ruled by Song dynasty

20 Mongol Conquest of Persia
Genghis Khan tried to open trade and diplomatic relations with Saljuq leader Khwarazm shah, the ruler of Persia in 1218 Upon being rejected, Genghis Khan led force to pursue Khwarazm Mongol forces destroyed Persian cities

21 Death of Genghis Khan Died in 1227 having laid foundation for a mighty empire

22 Mongol Division After Genghis Heirs Divide into Four Regional Empires….
Kubilai Khan-China Genghis Khan’s grandson Consolidated Mongol rule in China Promoted Buddhism, supported the Daoists, Muslims, and Christians

23 Conquest of Southern China
Khubilai extended Mongol rule to all of China Song capital at Hangzhou fell in 1276 Yuan Dynasty founded in 1279 Unsuccessful conquests of Vietnam, Burma, Java, and Japan

24 The Golden Horde Group of Mongols overran Russia between 1237 and 1241
Jochi and later Batu will rule… Batu – r Further overran Poland, Hungary and eastern Germany, 1241 – 1242 Maintained hegemony in Russia until the mid-fifteenth century

25 The Ilkhanate of Persia
Khubilai’s brother, Hulegu captured Baghdad in 1258 Mongol rule in Persia Persians served as ministers, governors, and local officials Mongols cared only about taxes and order Ilkan Ghazan converted to Islam in 1295 Massacres of Jews and Christians followed

26 Mongol Rule in China 1206 Temujin chosen Genghis Khan of the Mongols
1227 Death of Genghis Khan Mongols conquer northern China in 1234 1265 Khubilai becomes last Great Khan – rules till death in 1294 1271 founding of the Yuan Empire Mongol conquest of the Southern Song 1368 Ming Empire founded

27 Mongols in China 1265 Khubilai becomes last Great Khan – rules till death in 1294 By 1279 the Mongols are in control of China Yuan Dynasty Short conquest – 1368 the Ming Dynasty is founded

28 Mongol Khanates

29 Diplomatic Missions The four Mongol empires maintained close diplomatic communications Khanate of Chagatai Khanate of the Golden Horde Khanate of the Great Khan Ilkanate of the Great Khan Established diplomatic relations with Korea, Vietnam, India, Europe

30 Mongol Rule in China Four Classes Mongols
Central Asians and the Middle Easterners Northern Chinese Southern Chinese

31 Mongol Rule in China Outlawed intermarriage between Mongols and Chinese Forbade Chinese from learning the Mongol language Brought foreign administrators into China and put them in charge Tolerated all cultural and religious traditions in China

32 Mongol Ruling Elite Became enchanted with the Lamaist (Vajrayana) Buddhism of Tibet Universal leader concept

33 The Mongols and Eurasian Integration
The Mongols and trade Mongols worked to secure trade routes and ensure safety of merchants Elaborate courier network with relay stations Maintained good order for traveling merchants, ambassadors, and missionaries

34 Resettlement Mongols needed skilled artisans and educated individuals from other places Often resettled them in different locations to provide services Uigher Turks served as clerks, secretaries, and administrators Arab and Persian Muslims also served Mongols far from their homelands Skilled artisans were often sent to Karakorum; became permanent residents

35 Decline of the Mongols in Persia and China
Had been established by Hulegu by 1260 Ghazan – declared himself a Muslim in 1295 Decline of the Il-kanate state In Persia, excessive spending and overexploitation led to reduced revenues Failure of the Il-khan’s paper money Factional struggle plagued the Mongol leadership The last ruler died without an heir; the Il-khanate collapsed

36 Decline of the Yuan Dynasty
Seen as outsiders Traditional Chinese & outside religions Rebellions among farmers Paper money issued by the Mongol rulers lost value Power struggles, assassinations, and civil war weakened Mongols after 1320s

37 Bubonic Plague In southwest China in 1330s
Spread through Asia and Europe Depopulation and labor shortage undermined the Mongol regime By 1368 the Chinese drove the Mongols back to the steppes

38 Surviving Mongol Khanates
The Khanate of Chaghati continued in central Asia Later – Timur / Tamerlane The Golden Horde survived until the mid-sixteenth century Batu Khan Sarai – near Volga River

39 Checking for Understanding:
Why is it argued by historians that the Mongols changed the world, or helped to make the world ‘modern’?

40 RECOVERY IN CHINA The Ming Dynasty
Zhu Yuanzhang (Hongwu) overthrew Mongol rule and established the Ming dynasty in 1368 Ming centralization of government revived Chinese traditions Reestablished Confucian educational and civil service systems Emperor ruled China directly without the aid of chief ministers Mandarins and eunuchs maintained absolute authority of emperors Mandarins represented central government to local authorities Eunuchs could not build family fortunes

41 The Ming Dynasty Map

42 Ming Dynasty Promoted Economic Recovery
Repaired irrigation systems Agricultural productivity soared Promoted manufacture of porcelain, silk, and cotton textiles Trade within Asia flourished with increased production

43 Cultural Revival Actively promoted neo-Confucianism
Yongle – encyclopedia – massive anthology of cultural traditions

44 The Chinese Reconnaissance
Zheng He’s expeditions Ming emperors permitted foreigners to trade in Quanzhou and Guangzhou Refurbished navy and sent seven ships into Indian Ocean Purposes of expedition? Largest marine crafts in the world…

45 The Treasure Ships

46 Chinese Naval Power Visited southeast Asia, India, Ceylon, Arabia, and east Africa Zheng He’s voyages were diplomatic-exchange of gifts and envoys Also military – used force to impress foreign powers – ex. coastal pirates Voyages enhanced Chinese reputation in the Indian Ocean basin

47 End of Voyages 1433 New emperor
Confucian ministers mistrusted foreign alliances Resources redirected to agriculture and defense of northern borders Technology of building ships was forgotten, charts destroyed

48 Zheng He

49 Forbidden City 183 acres 32 feet tall wall 1406 construction begins
14 years 200,000 men 75 buildings, 9,999 rooms

50 Map of the Forbidden City

51 Hall of Supreme Harmony
Major Structure

52 Hall of Earthly Peace Residence of Empress

53 Hall of Protective Harmony
Banquet Hall

54 The Ming Emperor and Empress

55 From the Air….

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