Presentation on theme: "AP World History (1/5) Do Now: What does this pile of bat guano have to do with empire building during this time period (1450- 1750)? Bat guano=bat."— Presentation transcript:
AP World History (1/5) Do Now: What does this pile of bat guano have to do with empire building during this time period (1450- 1750)? Bat guano=bat poop
Bat guano? Really? The ingredients of gunpowder are ground charcoal, sulphur, and saltpeter. Saltpeter, or potassium nitrate, is the oxidizer. It is a white, crystalline, organic chemical—a byproduct of animal dung. It can be mined in ancient bat caves or bird dung piles as the substance called guano. Originated in China Help bring about the so-called gunpowder empires The Ottoman Empire The Safavid Empire The Mughal Empire
The Ottoman Empire Muslim empire (Sunni Muslim) Founded by Osman Hoped to conquer Europe (stopped outside of Vienna) Height of its power under Suleiman the Magnificent (1520- 1566)
Political characteristics Sultans=political and military leaders As size of empire grows, more military control needed Warrior aristocrats granted control over land and food production Janissaries- christian boys who became slaves to the Sultan (trained, taught Turkish, converted to Islam) Importance- given weapons-this control of weapons gives them political and economic power (replaced the old aristocrats) Centralized bureaucracy-led to problems of control later (especially in regards to succession)
Economic Issues Conquered many lands and maintained control of the Black and Mediterranean Seas Only gunpowder empire with a naval presence Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) key city (trade routes and cultural influences) Reached limits of its expansion by this time (mid 17 th century) Too large to be maintained (new powers are sea based) Increasing corruption in tax collection (bureaucracy) Increased demands of the Janissaries Inflation-caused by the increasing amount of New World silver added to the world economy Ottoman’s could not easily reform tax laws
Ottoman Empire and ethnocentrism The Ottoman Empire considered European societies backward and marginal (according to Wood) Saw themselves as superior This impacted the way they interacted with Europe and what technologies they accepted/rejected Example: the printing press (Jews bring the printing press from Spain, but not allowed to print in Turkish or Arabic-language of most Ottomans)
Ottoman Empire Case Study: the Siege of Vienna (1529) Would the world have developed differently had the Ottomans taken over Vienna in 1529? Check the video clip to get some context on this event
AP World History (1/6) Do Now: What was one reason why the Ottoman Empire was NOT successful in their siege of Vienna in 1529?
Safavid Empire (Iran and parts of Iraq) Shi’ite, not Sunni (similar issues with succession) Based their political beliefs on belief in the Hidden Imam (heirs of Muhammad;12 th heir disappeared) Ismail- led this empire (challenged the Ottomans) 1514-Battle of Chaldiran-marker event (limits of Shi’ite expansion) Peak of power under Shah Abbas I (1588-1629) Brought in European advisors to help him with warfare (different stance than the Ottomans) Strictly a land based power More isolated (less trade power-also negatively affected over time by growth in European trade)
Mughal Empire India-regionally fragmented (decentralized) Muslim leaders but subjects primarily Hindu Babur-descendant of Genghis Khan founds this empire (1526) Political instability (fights for succession) Fighting of infidels (Hindus) Controlled trade overland, but not by sea (eventually weakens them-English and Dutch influence grows) Patriarchal-but wives often had great influence (Mumtaz Mahal-husband built Taj Mahal in her honor) Religious attempts at unity Divine Faith-Akbar’s attempt to blend Muslim, Hindu, Christian, Zoroastrianism, etc. (religious fail) Sikhism-meditation as a means to enlightenment (more conflict with Islam) Ultimate failure of empire-neglect of political, economic, and military issues
Comparison of gunpowder empires Check on Wood page 322: What similarities and differences does she outline? Political? Economic and social? Cultural?
Reading homework (due 1/9) Chapter fourteen (pp. 323-342) Terms Romanov family Peter the Great’s program for westernization Matteo Ricci and the Jesuits The Qing Dynasty Tokugawa Shogunate