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AP World History (1/5)  Do Now: What does this pile of bat guano have to do with empire building during this time period (1450- 1750)?  Bat guano=bat.

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Presentation on theme: "AP World History (1/5)  Do Now: What does this pile of bat guano have to do with empire building during this time period (1450- 1750)?  Bat guano=bat."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP World History (1/5)  Do Now: What does this pile of bat guano have to do with empire building during this time period ( )?  Bat guano=bat poop

2 Bat guano? Really?  The ingredients of gunpowder are ground charcoal, sulphur, and saltpeter. Saltpeter, or potassium nitrate, is the oxidizer. It is a white, crystalline, organic chemical—a byproduct of animal dung. It can be mined in ancient bat caves or bird dung piles as the substance called guano.  Originated in China  Help bring about the so-called gunpowder empires  The Ottoman Empire  The Safavid Empire  The Mughal Empire

3 The Ottoman Empire  Muslim empire (Sunni Muslim)  Founded by Osman  Hoped to conquer Europe (stopped outside of Vienna)  Height of its power under Suleiman the Magnificent ( )

4 Political characteristics  Sultans=political and military leaders  As size of empire grows, more military control needed  Warrior aristocrats granted control over land and food production  Janissaries- christian boys who became slaves to the Sultan (trained, taught Turkish, converted to Islam)  Importance- given weapons-this control of weapons gives them political and economic power (replaced the old aristocrats)  Centralized bureaucracy-led to problems of control later (especially in regards to succession)

5 Economic Issues  Conquered many lands and maintained control of the Black and Mediterranean Seas  Only gunpowder empire with a naval presence  Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) key city (trade routes and cultural influences)  Reached limits of its expansion by this time (mid 17 th century)  Too large to be maintained (new powers are sea based)  Increasing corruption in tax collection (bureaucracy)  Increased demands of the Janissaries  Inflation-caused by the increasing amount of New World silver added to the world economy  Ottoman’s could not easily reform tax laws

6 Ottoman Empire and ethnocentrism  The Ottoman Empire considered European societies backward and marginal (according to Wood)  Saw themselves as superior  This impacted the way they interacted with Europe and what technologies they accepted/rejected  Example: the printing press (Jews bring the printing press from Spain, but not allowed to print in Turkish or Arabic-language of most Ottomans)

7 Ottoman Empire Case Study: the Siege of Vienna (1529)  Would the world have developed differently had the Ottomans taken over Vienna in 1529?  Check the video clip to get some context on this event

8 AP World History (1/6)  Do Now: What was one reason why the Ottoman Empire was NOT successful in their siege of Vienna in 1529?

9 Safavid Empire (Iran and parts of Iraq)  Shi’ite, not Sunni (similar issues with succession)  Based their political beliefs on belief in the Hidden Imam (heirs of Muhammad;12 th heir disappeared)  Ismail- led this empire (challenged the Ottomans)  1514-Battle of Chaldiran-marker event (limits of Shi’ite expansion)  Peak of power under Shah Abbas I ( )  Brought in European advisors to help him with warfare (different stance than the Ottomans)  Strictly a land based power  More isolated (less trade power-also negatively affected over time by growth in European trade)

10 Mughal Empire  India-regionally fragmented (decentralized)  Muslim leaders but subjects primarily Hindu  Babur-descendant of Genghis Khan founds this empire (1526)  Political instability (fights for succession)  Fighting of infidels (Hindus)  Controlled trade overland, but not by sea (eventually weakens them-English and Dutch influence grows)  Patriarchal-but wives often had great influence (Mumtaz Mahal-husband built Taj Mahal in her honor)  Religious attempts at unity  Divine Faith-Akbar’s attempt to blend Muslim, Hindu, Christian, Zoroastrianism, etc. (religious fail)  Sikhism-meditation as a means to enlightenment (more conflict with Islam)  Ultimate failure of empire-neglect of political, economic, and military issues

11 Comparison of gunpowder empires  Check on Wood page 322: What similarities and differences does she outline?  Political?  Economic and social?  Cultural?

12 Reading homework (due 1/9)  Chapter fourteen (pp )  Terms  Romanov family  Peter the Great’s program for westernization  Matteo Ricci and the Jesuits  The Qing Dynasty  Tokugawa Shogunate


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