2 nd Triumvirate 3 men connected with Caesar pursued & defeated the assassins: – Marc Antony-Caesar’s general, brother-in-law & best friend; –Lepidus- another general & friend; –Octavian-Caesar’s nephew & adopted son & heir (only 19 years old!)
2 nd Triumvirate Lepidus was pushed out & Marc Antony & Octavian divided the Empire; Octavian took the west; Marc Antony took the East
2 nd Triumvirate falls apart-Marc Antony misbehaves Marc Antony moved to Egypt, since he was in charge of the eastern half of the Empire, and Egypt was the richest part of the east He began a long term affair with Cleopatra (Caesar’s former girlfriend) This made Octavian angry because Marc Antony was married to his sister
ANOTHER POWER STRUGGLE: OCTAVIAN vs. MARC ANTONY Octavian persuaded the Senate to declare war on Antony & Cleopatra 31BC – Battle of Actium – in a great naval battle, Octavian (troops led by his friend Agrippa) defeated Antony & Cleopatra Both committed suicide: Antony stabbed himself & Cleopatra used an asp
OCTAVIAN IN TOTAL CONTROL Octavian was now in complete control Was loved by most people of all social classes Octavian-one of the most brilliant politicians & leaders of world history OCTAVIAN IN TOTAL CONTROL
OCTAVIAN the HUMBLE EMPEROR Did not flaunt his power; lived & dressed simply Took a humble title for himself-”Princeps”, “1 st Citizen” Senate gave him the title “Augustus”- ”revered one” The reality was that he was Rome’s first Emperor
What AUGUSTUS –Octavian (31BC-14AD) did: Totally organized the empire so that it rolled along for almost 500 years despite many incompetent or insane emperors With his friend Agrippa in charge of the army, expanded the boundaries of the empire to the Rhine & Danube rivers. Tried to push beyond the Rhine River to the Elbe River, but was pushed back. Began the EMPIRE PERIOD (27BC-476AD), and the PAX ROMANA (27BC-180AD)
PAX ROMANA 27BC-180AD There was peace and prosperity in most of the Roman Empire most of the time Europe’s longest recorded period of peace
ROMAN GOVERNMENT DURING THE EMPIRE (27BC-476AD) Senate & Assemblies still existed; Consuls, praetors & censors were still elected, but there power was greatly diminished One man was actually in charge, the Emperor There was no set way of deciding who would be the next emperor (no rule of succession) so there was often a power struggle
JULIO-CLAUDIAN EMPEROR (Emperors after Augustus related to Julius Caesar) Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero
TIBERIUS (14AD-37AD) Step-son of Augustus; son of Augustus’ wife Livia from her previous marriage Augustus had forced him to divorce his wife and marry Augustus’ daughter Julia, whom Tiberius detested (Augustus later had to exile his daughter Julia for her numerous acts of adultery) Adequate ruler, but disliked Became depressed and reclusive; moved to the island of Capri and left much of the work to subordinates
CALIGULA(37AD-41AD) Caligula was a nickname – meant “little boots” Definitely insane Could be generous at times, cruel at times Made his horse a Senator Murdered by the Praetorian Guard
CLAUDIUS Only member of the family who was eligible and alive (they kept murdering each other) Physical problems: limped & drooled; thought by some to be stupid Actually intelligent and a scholar Fairly good emperor; conquered Britain & added it to the Empire His wife Agrippina poisoned him with poisonous mushroom
NERO 54AD-68AD Probably the most cruel of all the emperors Killed his own wife and mother Believed he was a great musician and forced people to listen to his concerts Blamed the Great Fire of Rome (64AD) on the new religious sect – the Christians-and began viciously persecuting them In the area of Rome cleared by the fire, he built a huge palace called the “House of Gold” There was a rebellion and he committed suicide-” What an artist dies in me!”
“Army Emperors” (68AD-69AD) 3 emperors who ruled a very short time – Galba, Othos, Vitellius Chosen and supported by legions they commanded There was no rule of succession
FLAVIAN EMPERORS (69AD-96AD) VESPASIAN-very good leader TITUS-adequate leader DOMITIAN-adequate leader Expanded the Empire Built the Colosseum (the Flavian Amphitheatre)
“5 GOOD EMPERORS”-96AD-180AD NERVA-good leader TRAJAN – Good leader –r;uled when the empire was at its largest HADRIAN: very gifted leader –& knew all parts of the empire very well; –Goal was to “Romanize” (bring Roman culture to) all parts of the Empire; –patron of the arts; –built Hadrian’s wall-wall between Roman Britain and Scotland- the northern boundary of the Empire ANTONINUS PIUS- good leader MARCUS AURELIUS-good leader & extremely good man – also a famous Stoic philosopher – After him his son Commodus-who was a very bad ruler-took power; last of the “5 Good Emperors”
SUCCESSION There was never a rule of succession-a rule to decide who became the next emperor Sometimes it was the son of the previous emperor, sometimes not Often the army decided who was the next emperor
Ch7, Sec 5-The Jewish people under Roman rule, and the rise of Christianity
Judaea and the Jewish People Israel/Palestine, the homeland of the Jews became a part of the Roman Empire. The Romans called it the province of Judaea.
Jewish People and the Roman Empire Jewish people were strictly monotheistic Romans exempted the Jews from the requirement that subjects of the Empire honor Roman gods & the divine spirit of the Emperor. However, many Jews resented the Romans, and saw the presence of the Romans as weakening and undermining their religion. Some Jews, called Zealots, supported rebellion against Rome to regain their independence. Many Jews were hoping for the coming of a special leader called the “Messiah”, who would free them from Roman rule.
Jewish Revolts 1 st Jewish Revolt-66AD- 70AD- Rome put down the 1st Jewish revolt and destroyed the Jewish Temple The last Jewish rebels held out on the stronghold of Masada, and when the Romans finally built a ramp and were about to take it, they committed suicide.
Jewish Revolts 135AD-2nd Jewish Revolt Rome put down the 2nd Jewish revolt Rome forced the Jews to leave Judaea, and live in other parts of the Empire. This was the beginning of the Diaspora – the scattering of the Jews.
Life of Jesus Jesus was a Jew born about 3-4BC (reign of Augustus) in Judaea during the period called the Pax Romana. Jesus began public teaching about 27AD He was a devout Jew who followed Jewish religion, but put less emphasis on the details of the law & more emphasis on: » People should love God & love their neighbors » God cares deeply about the poor and suffering. Criticized the Jewish leaders, but was devoted to the religion of Judaism. Performed miracles of healing Attracted many followers, including 12 special followers called “Apostles”
Death and Resurrection of Jesus He was arrested, put on trial & crucified by the Romans about 30AD. The reason is not entirely clear. Jewish leaders were angry because he claimed to be the Messiah. The Romans seemed to believe he might cause a riot or rebellion. Only the Roman government had the power to impose the death sentence, so the final decision was theirs. His followers claimed that 3 days after his crucifixion, he rose from the dead; that he remained on earth 40 more days, and then ascended into heaven.
Christianity develops –His followers claimed that he was the Jewish Messiah, and called him “Christos”, the Greek word for Messiah, or Anointed One. They claimed that he brought spiritual salvation not just to the Jews, but to everyone. –Story of what Jesus did and said was recorded in 4 accounts: The Gospels- Matthew, Mark, Luke and John (there were several other accounts, but these were the oldest and the ones chosen to be in the Christian Bible. –These, along with the letters of Paul, make up most of the New Testament
Christianity-Religion of Judaism plus... * Jesus is the son of God, which means that God put his spirit in a special way into Jesus, who did not sin. Jesus willingly became a sacrifice that paid the debt of human sin. The life, death and resurrection of Jesus make eternal life possible.
Christianity gradually separated from Judaism –Spread by the Apostles (original followers of Jesus) and by a new follower, Paul, a Jewish rabbi. –At first Christianity was a sect within Judaism and all the earliest Christians were Jewish, but soon many non-Jews began to convert. –Paul persuaded the other early Christians that people should not have to be Jewish in order to become Christian. Paul made numerous trips to many cities in the Roman Empire, preaching Christianity. –Within about 100 years, Christianity became a separate religion from Judaism.
Rome outlaws & persecutes Christianity Nero accused the Christians of starting the Great Fire of Rome Christians refused to honor the Roman Gods Christians were suspected of strange practices, such as cannibalism (a misunderstanding of the communion ceremony) Christianity was spreading rapidly Rome outlawed Christianity & made it punishable by death.
Persecution of Christians –Roman government outlawed Christianity began arresting and executing Christians in brutal, public ways. These people who died for their faith are called martyrs. – The result was the opposite of what they intended. People saw the courage of the Christians, and more began to convert. –By 300AD, Christianity was very widespread throughout the Roman Empire.
312AD- Emperor Constantine issued the “Edict of Milan”, which legalized Christianity On his deathbed, Emperor Constantine was baptized & became a Christian In 391AD-Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
Council of Nicaea –325AD- Council of Nicaea-attended by many Christian thinkers & the Emperor Constantine himself, debated the questions of Christianity, especially the nature of Christ and his relationship to God. They eventually wrote down the official statement of Christian belief, called the Nicene Creed – which says: God is One, but is also a Trinity (has three forms), Father, Son and Holy Spirit Jesus Christ was/is both fully God and fully man
Organization of the early Church Christian communitiesbecame well organized. At the top: 5 Patriarchs. Bishops (literally means “shepherd”) of 5 important cities: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem. Bishop- over a region. Priest-over a congregation People
Church begins to divide: Eventually, the Patriarch of Rome became known as the Pope, and claimed to be supreme over the other 4 Patriarchs, although they did not recognize this. When the Roman Empire split into two parts: Pope was the head of the Western Church, which became known as the Roman Catholic Patriarch of Constantinople became the head of the Eastern Church, which became known as the Eastern (or Greek) Orthodox Church.