Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Changes in Word Meaning ---Class 0610 杜萱 7.1 types of changes."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 7 Changes in Word Meaning ---Class 0610 杜萱 7.1 types of changes
To be, or not to be: that is the question: Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep; No more; and by a sleep to say we end The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks That flesh is heir to, 'tis a consummation Devoutly to be wish'd. To die, to sleep; To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there's the rub; For in that sleep of death what dreams may come When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, Must give us pause: there's the respect rub means obstacle, respect means consideration
That makes calamity of so long life; For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely, The pangs of despised love, the law's delay, The insolence of office and the spurns That patient merit of the unworthy takes, When he himself might his quietus make With a bare bodkin? who would fardels bear, To grunt and sweat under a weary life, But that the dread of something after death, The undiscover'd country from whose bourn No traveller returns, puzzles the will And makes us rather bear those ills we have Than fly to others that we know not of? office means high officials, bare means mere, bourn means boundary, and ill means evil.
娃美女孩子 二毛 老人 ？ Quirks: ‘almost every word we use today has a slightly different meaning from the on it had a century ago; and a century ago it had a slightly different meaning from the one it had a century before that.’
7.1.Types of Change Degradation Elevation Transference Euphemism Extension Narrowing
1. Extension of Meaning (Generalization) specialized a word with an original specialized meaning broaderless definite a broader and often less definite concept (generalizing) eg. the word “picture” painting (original meaning) drawings photographs (extended meaning)
WordOld MeaningGeneralized Meaning barn aunt virtue layman a place for storing only barley storeroom father’s sisterfather or mother’s sister a quality that could only be applied to men it can equally be applied to women as well one who is not of clergy non-member of any profession
Generalization of meaning in technical terms Computer science: feedbackresponse Medical term: allergic (too sensitive to medicine) averse or disinclined to Chemistry: catalyst ( 催化剂 ) (a substance which, without itself changing, causes chemical activity to quicken.) Something that facilitates a change
Words generalized from proper names eg1: valentine Saint Valentine the patron saint of loverslover eg3: CNN Cable News Network (CNN) eg2: Solomon King Solomon profoundly wise person King of Israel in the 10th century B.C., famed for his wise [adj] irresponsible [n] news media
Polysemic words are also generalized in the course of development. Thing. eg: 1. What’s the next thing we have to do? (an act, deed) 2. The murder was a terrible thing, wasn’t it? (an event) 3. The next thing is for you to get well again. (an aim or effort) 4. He says the first thing that comes into his head. (an idea) 5. She was wearing the latest thing in shoes. (the fashion or custom) (originally meant ‘deliberative assembly’)
2. Narrowing of Meaning. (Specialization) more generala word with a more general meaning (narrowing) narrower specialized a narrower or specialized meaning eg: starve to die (original meaning) to die of cold (in middle English) to die of hunger ( the 16th century---now)
WordOld MeaningSpecialized Meaning hound fowl skyline girl any doga hunting dog any bird a domesticated bird any horizon a horizon decorated by skyscrapers young person of either sex female young person
From common nouns to proper nouns. eg: 1. city--- large town City---part of London governed by Lord Mayor and Corporation, the business part of this, commercial circles. 2. mediterranean---(of land) remote from coast or (of water area) landlocked. Mediterranean---the Mediterranean Sea
For economy, some phrases are shorten to retain the whole meaning. eg: a general = a general officer a private = a private solider Material nouns refer to objects made of them and thus have a morespecific sense. eg:silver---silver dollar iron---device for smoothing clothes
Sometimes extension and narrowing may take place in the same word. eg: slay--- to strike to give a blow generalized meaning---to kill by any method. specialized meaning---to kill by a blow
Generalization and specialization are closely related. The former is less common than the latter, because language in every life is directed towards the concrete and specific rather than towards the abstract and gerenal.
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