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 Russell Betsuie  Environmental Team Supervisor  Gila River Indian Community  Department of Environmental Quality.

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Presentation on theme: " Russell Betsuie  Environmental Team Supervisor  Gila River Indian Community  Department of Environmental Quality."— Presentation transcript:

1  Russell Betsuie  Environmental Team Supervisor  Gila River Indian Community  Department of Environmental Quality

2  Gila River Indian Community  Akimel O’odham (Pima) & Pee Posh (Maricopa)  Located in Central Arizona, adjacent to Phoenix in Maricopa & Pinal counties  Established in 1859 by Executive Order  374,000 acres  Population 15,500 people (on reservation)  + 1, Keith’s baby daughter

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5  Meteorological Sensors Overview  Wind speed  Wind Direction  Ambient temperature  Relative humidity  Barometric pressure  Precipitation gauge  Brief overview  Solar radiation  Fuel moisture / Fuel temperature  Meteorological Tower  Data Logger  Documentation  Other information

6  Wind Speed Sensor  Propeller  Lightweight material  Magnetically induced AC sine wave output voltage  Met Card  Frequency directly proportional to wind speed  Translator output is an analog voltage  Voltage applied to Data Logger  Voltage In Card

7  Wind Speed Sensor  Cup assembly  Chopper wheel directly coupled to speed sensor which interrupts light path of optic link  Pulse frequency proportional to wind speed  Met Card  Translator output is an analog voltage  Voltage applied to data logger  Voltage In Card

8  Met One 010C Wind Speed Sensor  Cover remove showing the light chopper disk that produces the pulse frequency  Detector light assembly  Electronic board

9 Sine wave Time Hz (Hertz) is cycles per second Use sensor unit specs for range Wind Speed Sensor Frequencies Pulsed frequency

10 VoltageSignalVoltageSignal 1 Volt Hz =100 MPH Full Scale If 1.0 volt = 100 Mile per hour then 0.5 volts = 50.0 MPH 0.5 Volt Hz =50 MPH Change is proportional Basic Signal Concept

11  Wind direction Sensor  Lightweight vane material  Wind vane directly coupled to potentiometer  Potentiometer produce an analog output voltage  Voltage is proportional to vane angle (wind direction)  Voltage is applied to translator or data logger  Voltage In Card

12  Wind direction Sensor  Lightweight material  Airfoil shape Polyurethane  Directly coupled to potentiometer  Potentiometer produce an analog output voltage  Voltage proportional to vane angle (wind direction)  Voltage is applied to translator or data logger  Voltage In Card

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14 VoltageDegrees Voltage Degrees 1 Volt 360 Degrees Full Scale If 1.0 volt = 360 degrees then 0.5 volts = 180 Degrees 0.5 Volts 180 Deg. Change is proportional Basic Analog Concept

15  Ultra Sonic  Wind speed and direction sensor combined  Solid state  Analog and Digital output  No moving parts  Less maintenance  No calibration required

16  RM Young  Vane Alignment Rod  Notch and box will always face true south with rod pointing to true north  Met One  Cross-arm  Notch on direction sensor face south with cross arm pointing south / true north

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18  Compass will show magnetic north  Set wind direction sensor to true north  Each area has declination to use for correction to true north  Eastern part of U.S. declination is positive  Western part of U.S. declination is negative Web site 

19  Ambient Temperature Sensor  High impedance thermistors or thermocouple  Cold temperature will increase sensor resistance  Hot Temperature will decrease sensor resistance  Relative Humidity Sensor  Measure water vapor contents of atmosphere  Works based on capacitive change  Integrated Sensor unit  Advantage  2 sensors in one sensor (cost)  Disadvantage  If temperature or relative humidity component is damaged. Sensor must be replace sacrificing other sensor data

20  2 types of Radiation Shields  1. Multi-plate Radiation Shield  White aluminum housing with disk plates  Protect sensors from rain and from direct sun rays  Allows air flow through plates to sensor located in center of shield

21  2. Fan Aspirated Radiation Shield  White coating on aluminum and white material housing  Protect sensors from rain and from direct sun rays  Fan produce continuous ambient air flow through shield and sensor  Prevents convective heat transfer to sensor  Requires more cleaning of housing and replacement of fan

22  Fuel moisture /fuel temperature sensor  Basically a temperature and humidity sensor  Used for applications such as fire management  Can help determine fire danger levels  Used for determining fuel moisture & fuel temperature of area. Mounted over fuel bed  Typical fuels may be forest material: timber, brushes & also trash

23  Barometric pressure sensors  Outside & Inside Sensors  Detect atmospheric pressure  Typically a solid-state pressure transducer  Internal electronic circuitry  Analog output voltage

24  Precipitation gauge  Measures amount of rain fall  Tipping bucket located below funnel  Rain droplets collects in tipping bucket  Tipping action activates switch  Switch closure sends signal to translator box or data logger  Important to level bucket, some buckets have a internal bubble level

25  Solar radiation sensor  Solar Pyranometer  Detects amount of solar radiation from sun (sunlight)  Complements ozone data  Complements fuel stick data  Operation  Detector element: black & white  Different rates of absorption  Temperature differential  Be aware of obstruction that may effect data  Shade from trees or buildings  Night light from street lights

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27  Tower 10 x the distance of the height of obstruction (tree drip line, buildings)  May not be ideal location due to:  Security  Access Power  Accessible  Reference: EPA Quality Assurance Handbook for Pollution Measurement Systems: Volume IV Meteorological Measurements

28  Three Type of Met Towers  10 meter height (30 feet)  Grounding kit  Lowering clearance free of electrical lines  Set hinge base correctly for lowering  Concrete base or attach to structure and/or guy wiring.  Secure kids from climbing tower  1. Free Standing Tower  Popular  Needs clearance for lowering down  Pre-plan for location of base tower Courtesy: Aluma Tower Company Inc.

29  2. Telescoping Tower  No clearance for lowering  Tower stay in vertical position  Top sections lowers into lower section  Hand or Electrical Winch  Parts for winch Courtesy: Aluma Tower Company

30  3. Tri-pod Tower  Quick setup  Guy wiring and secure footing  Mobile  Gila River has a 10 meter tripod on roof of school library. Couldn’t secure footing on roof. Courtesy: NovaLynx

31  Data Loggers  ESC  AC source, use in temperature control environment  Voltage Input Card  Met Card  Tipping bucket, Sensor power source  Campbell  DC source, use in outside ambient temperatures  Good for solar panels  Retrieve data  Download data on laptop computer w/ RS-232 cable. Phone line w/ modem, Wireless, Satellite

32  Sine wave0 – 1 Volt etc.  Pulse wave  Resistance  Voltage 0 – 1 Volt etc.

33  Calibration equipment  Vane Torque Gauge  Checks for wear on wind direction sensor bearing  Propeller Torque Disc  Checks for wear on speed sensor bearings  Also used for Cup assay sensors

34  Calibration equipment  Anemometer Drive  Wind-speed calibrator (RPM)  Used for propeller and cup assay sensor  Annual calibration traceable to NIST (National institute of Standard and Technology)  Vane Angle Stand  Set points of degree angles  Airfoil vane requires another angle bench

35  Calibration /verification of Sensors (manufacturer recommends annual or 6 months)  Wind-speed sensor  7-point checks  Wind-direction sensor  5-point checks

36  Temperature Sensor  Wet Bath 3 point check  Ambient Temperature  Hot water Temperature  Cold water Temperature Be aware combination RH/Temp sensor can not be submerge in water  Relative Humidity Sensor  Micro-Bath /Dry Cal  Salt solutions  Chamber (very expensive)

37  Precipitation gauge  Verification equipment  Measured container or burette with Stand and nozzle squeeze container. Distill water (tap water causes residue)  In  Clean rain bucket and screen(s) several times a year  Dirt, Leaves & Insects

38  Barometric Pressure Sensor  Digital Pressure device  1 point ambient pressure reading  Precipitation Rain Bucket  Check level of bucket  Measured amount of distill water  Graduated cylinder  Burette w/ stand & nozzle squeezable bottle  Solar Radiation Sensor  Clean sensor of debris  Cover and Uncover sensor

39  For cold climates sensor have internal heaters  Maintenance  Clean sensors: direction vane, speed propeller or 3 cups assembly and temperature shield housing  Replace bearings and worn parts  Lubricate rubber rings  Tighten connectors to sensors to prevent moisture damage  Check for crack lines  Check guy wires and tighten bolts  Tighten connectors to cross-arm shields and sensors

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41  Documentation  Site log book  Personal log book  Site check list  Calibration & audit forms  Repair forms  Purchase-order forms  Ship for certification and/or repairs  Shipping receipts  Disposition forms etc…

42  Recommendation  Have some experience in Excel, Word, carpentry, electronics and electricity  Vendors to calibrate equipment and/or repair  Purchase equipment similar to surrounding agencies and tribal air programs  For troubleshooting tips  Audits  Items to have:  Basis set of tools  Digital multi-meter & gauge wiring  Computer Conversion software  Ty-wrap to secure cables  Tap in monitor or sampler to collect certain data  Solder Pictures courtesy of: ESC, Met One, RMYoung, Cambell, Climatronics and SRMPIC.

43  Purchase calibration equipment to calibrate sensors  Have spare sensors and parts ready  Review operational and service manuals  If you have questions call tribes, state, county TAMS for technical help


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