Presentation on theme: "The multi racial society of Malaysia. Composition and distribution Population (July 2010): 28.3 million. 44 th most populated country in the world. The."— Presentation transcript:
Composition and distribution Population (July 2010): 28.3 million. 44 th most populated country in the world. The Malaysian population continues to grow at a rate of 2.4% per annum; about 34% of the population is under the age of 15. Ethnic groups: Malay 53.3%, Chinese 26.0%, indigenous 11.8%, Indian 7.7%, others 1.2%. Religions: Islam (60.4%), Buddhism (19.2%), Christianity (9.1%), Hinduism (6.3%), other/none (5.0%).
Malays Malays:- speaks Malay language, practice Malay custom and profess Islamic religion - Engaged in farming, fishing and handicraft The actual history begins with the Malacca Sultanate (1402-1511), although there is mention of Malaya in the maritime empire of Srivijaya that was based on Java about A.D. 700. The trading empire based on control of the Strait of Malacca was the center of the diffusion of Islam throughout Malaysia. This spread, which was led by teachers and sufis, was peaceful. Between the 1500s and the 1800s there were struggles among competing groups such as the Acehnese, the Bugis, and the Minangkabau for dominance on the peninsula, while Melaka struggled with the Dutch and other European powers who sought to straddle the commerce in the strait.
Chinese - came in large number between 18 & 19 th century Earlier – already present in Riau was a gambier and tin- mines /in Larut pepper plantation Early 19 th century- moved to Lukut & Sg ujung to work in tin mines Mid 19 th century obtained mining consessions from local rulers- moved from singapore to johore Temenggung issue Surat Sungai to Chinese chieftain (kangcu) to open gambier –pepper plantation In Perak Long Jaafar brought in labour for Straits Settlement to work in tin mines
Situation in China :- Corrupt Ching Government Political unrest Rebellions Natural disaster Initially Chinese do not intend to stay. In 1930 chinese began to consider staying Existence recognised during Malayan Union Majority came from Hokkien & Kwantung
Chinese Methods of entry Credit Ticket System Personnel Recruiting System Kongsi House Recruting System Individual arrangements In Groups
Large scale entry was checked by British when Immigration Control Act passed in 1930 following economic recession British set limit of entry Must be fit and could get employment Restriction made fair expensive Flow came to an end
The Indians Arrived before 19 th century After Anglo Dutch treaty british brought Indian prisoner from Bencoolen – to work in construction of roads and bridges 1840’s brought in another group to work in sugar cane plantation 1874- another group brought in for coffee and tea plantations
80% were Tamils and Malabari Also brought in white collar indians from malabari & ceylons to work as clerks, hospital assistant Situation in india - caste system restrict employment -rapid population -Shortage of food -Drought -starvation -rise in land tax by british 1859 –fare become too expensive as British impose passenger tax
Indian Methods of entry Contract labour system Kangani system Individual arrangement
The Orang asli & other communities aboriginal of the country together with Malays and the indigeneous people of sabah & Sarawak –bumiputra Divided into 3 major groups - Senoi - proto-Malays - Negrito Highland :- Murut, kelabit & Penan Lowland :- Iban, Bidayuh, Kayan Coastal settlers :- Malay, melanau & Kadayan Others include Sikhs, Pakistani, Cambodians & Eurasians
The concept of Plural society JS Furnival A social situation in colonised land. ethnic groups who lived under 1 political unit but not intergrated every group has different language, culture, religion and way of thinking. Basis of contact only on economic. Some mixed cultural due to mixed marriages
Theory of Social relations »The process of Intergration Segregation Accomodation Accultaration Assimilation Amalgamated
History of Ethnic relations - stage of co existence - frequent external contact - compromise - unity - intergration
Obtacles prejudice Communialism Ethnocentrism Ignorance Socialisation limited to within owns ethnic Communal politics Socio economic difference Cultural differences segregation