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2 Revolutionaries Before the Revolution A.Theses B.Dynamics of Social Revolution C.Revolutionaries: Social Profile D.Parties and Movements 1. Moderate-liberal.

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Presentation on theme: "2 Revolutionaries Before the Revolution A.Theses B.Dynamics of Social Revolution C.Revolutionaries: Social Profile D.Parties and Movements 1. Moderate-liberal."— Presentation transcript:

1 2 Revolutionaries Before the Revolution A.Theses B.Dynamics of Social Revolution C.Revolutionaries: Social Profile D.Parties and Movements 1. Moderate-liberal 2. Social Democratic 3. Socialist-revolutionary (neo-populist) E. “All-Nation Liberation Movement”

2 A. Theses 1.Social revolution: emergence, reshaping of spontaneous movements 2.Formation of parties, movements 3.Reconstitution of activists 4.Revision of revolutionary ideas, tactics 5.Formation of “all-nation liberation movement

3 B. Dynamics of Social Revolution 1.Popular engagement 2.Elite engagement 3.Intelligentsia: signs of shift

4 Miasoedov, “The Zemstvo Dining” (1872)

5 Repin, “Volga Barge-Haulers” (1870)

6 Repin, “Peasants Returning in Winter” (1880)

7 Zemstvo Doctor (1900)

8 Public Library of Sobriety Society (St. Petersburg, 1901)

9 D. Parties and Movements 1895: critical problems – no popular base – no organized parties – no ideology, strategy Emergence of 3 Main Movements – moderate/liberal – social democratic – socialist-revolutionary

10 C. Revolutionaries: Social Profile 1. Social Origin 2. Education 3. Occupation 4. Gender

11 Table 1 Revolutionaries: Social Origins Estate Nobility3111 Clergy62 Merchants124 Townspeople2844 Peasants1937 Other42

12 Table 2 Revolutionaries: Education Education University3412 Secondary3313 Elementary1233 Literate1330 Illiterate712

13 Table 3 Revolutionaries: Occupation Occupation Student2610 White-collar1211 Civil servant62 Private sector117 Agriculture710 Worker1647 Trade4 Other209

14 Table 4 Number Arrested Per Annum PeriodAnnual Average of Revolutionaries Arrested

15 D. Parties and Movements 1. Moderate-Liberal a.Social Base b.Zemstvo Movement c.Union of Liberation

16 Dmitrii Shipov (zemstvo leader)

17 S. Muromtsev, Moderate liberal

18 Pavel Miliukov (left liberal)

19 Petr Struve, Liberal Leader

20 D.Parties and Movements 2. Social Democratic a.Russian Marxism: Emergence and Dilemmas b.Surge in Late 1890s c.Crisis, d.Schism: Bolsheviks and Mensheviks

21 Plekhanov

22 St. Petersburg Union for the Liberation of Labor (1896)

23 Ulianov Family, 1879

24 Lenin in High School (1886)

25 Lenin (1900)

26 Nadezhda Krupskaia (1896)

27 Martov

28 Trotsky

29 Stalin (1903)

30 D. Parties and Movements 3. Socialist Revolutionary a.Classical populism b.Crisis c.Rejuventation and Revisionism d.PSR: propaganda and terror

31 Viktor Chernov, SR

32 Grigorii Gershuni, SR

33 E. All-Nation Liberation Movement 1. All classes, all nationalities 2. Claim to lead: classes, parties 3. Emergence of parties: organizations, theories, activists, presumed base


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