Presentation on theme: "Plunger Lift Reference Guide"— Presentation transcript:
1 Plunger Lift Reference Guide Base MgmtBy Pass Non-ConventionalHigh Speed Non-ConventionalBy PassHollow centerBy Pass with PadPortsPacemakerName: Ring Frictionless By PassManufacturer: PCSName: Center By PassManufacturer: PCSExample Wells:Fazekas 2-17Circle F 2-25Example Wells:NoneName: Rapid DropManufacturer: IPSName: Padded Sleeve By-PassManufacturer: PCSExample Wells:NoneName: StingrayManufacturer: Well MasterName: PacemakerManufacturer: IPSOperationThe two pieces of the plunger begin the cycle on the down hole assembly with plunger and ball traveling together as one unit as shown in Fig. 1. The differential pressure below the unit holds the two pieces together as the well begins to flow. Then as one unit, the plunger lifts accumulated fluid to the surface. In the lubricator at the surface, a shifting rod awaits the arrival of the plunger (Fig 2). The shifting rod separates the ball and sleeve, as in figure 3. The ball begins to fall back to the bottom-hole assembly, while the sleeve is held in place by the shifting rod. The auto-adjust controller determines when the motor valves close the well control valves to shut in the well and allow the plunger to fall through the wellhead. The well remains shut in for a short period for the plunger to pass through the wellhead and then resumes production while the plunger body falls back to the bottom.Example Wells:Dungeon 2-13Fazekas 6-17Yourman 6-15Lubricator: Quick DropFall Time: ft/mExample Wells:NoneExample Wells:NoneLubricator: Quick DropFall Time: ft/mShifting RodLubricator: PacemakerFall Time: ft/mLubricator: PacemakerFall Time: ft/mPlungerFlow Through PortsLubricator: Quick DropFall Time: ft/mLubricator: Quick DropFall Time: ft/mAdjustments to control the by pass areaBallPortsOperationDrop Phase: The plunger has a sliding sleeve that while in the open position allows gas and liquid to flow through an inner mandrel and exit the flow port at the top of the mandrel.Bottom Phase: The plunger falls to bottom and the sliding sleeve falls to the closed position preventing gas and liquid from flowing through the plunger.Lifting Phase: After the sleeve closes and flow no longer travels through the plunger, the plunger will travel to the surface, lifting all liquids above it.Top Phase: Once the fluid and plunger have arrived at the surface, the sleeve will be shifted to the open position to allow the plunger to fall for another cycle.PortsWell Velocity Below 15 Ft/sPadsStanding Valve and Spring AssemblyWell Velocity Below 10ft/sPadsOperationDrop Phase: The plunger falls and allows fluid and gas to flow between the outer body and internal rod. Some of the exit ports can be closed to restrict the flow through the plunger to help achieve the most efficient cycle time.Bottom Phase: The plunger falls to bottom and the rod shifts to the closed position preventing gas or liquid from flowing through the plunger.Lifting Phase: After the plunger closes and flow no longer moves through it, the plunger will travel to the surface, lifting all fluid above it.Top Phase: Once the fluid and plunger have arrived at the surface, the internal rod will shift to the open position to allow the plunger to fall for another cycle.OperationDrop Phase: The traveling dart is in the open position below the flow ports allowing high rates of gas and liquid to flow through the plunger.Bottom Phase: The plunger falls to bottom and the traveling dart shifts to the closed position preventing flow through the plunger.Lifting Phase: After the dart moves to the closed position and flow no longer goes through it, the plunger will travel to the surface, lifting all liquids above it.Top Phase: Once the fluid and plunger have arrived at the surface, a rod in the lubricator will shift the dart off seat and allow the plunger to fall for another cycle.Adjustment to Control By Pass AreaPortsPortsShifting RodPadsShifting RodShifting RodShifting Rod/DartOperationThe By-Pass plungers with pads allow for the seal of a pad plunger for better fluid recovery, while offering flow through the plunger. The trip rods that open the plunger and allow flow can be located in the lubricator or on the plunger.ConventionalMulti-StageIron SoapViperTestingLiquid UnloadingSand/SolidsSandBrushTestName: Spiral Sand PlungerManufacturer: PCSName: ViperManufacturer: Well MasterName: Smart PlungerManufacturer: PCSName: BrushManufacturer: PCSExample Wells:Smith 7-20State c2-28Dunagan 1-13Hampton 2-18Yourman 7-15Foster 1Small Orifices Where Gas ExitsName: Liquid Aeration PlungerManufacturer: PCSTravelingName: Multi Stage ToolManufacturer: PCSExample Wells:Varnum, Guy 4-25Example Wells:Sunflower 3Anderson 3Orr 7Example Wells:Myton 18Foster 1-7Martin C 7Stationary1Lubricator: ConventionalFall Time: ft/mDrop Off2Gas Exit JetsExample Wells:Topping State 1-9Example Wells:Paschall 4-21State c3-28Hampton 2-18Coblentz b3-1Gas Exit JetsRetrievalLubricator: ConventionalFall Time: ft/mLubricator: ConventionalFall Time: ft/m3Lubricator: ConventionalFall Time: ft/mOperationThe Viper plunger is a useful deliquification plunger in wells producing formation or frac sand. This conventional plunger is a solid plunger with a hollow core. The hollow core is connected to radial holes on the exterior that direct turbulent gas to the tubing wall pressure washing the wall on the upstroke. The radial grooves in the bottom create spinning action on the upstroke and down stroke.OperationThe brush plunger is a solid mandrel wound with flexible brush fibers. Most of the time these plungers are constructed with undercuts ensuring descalling of the tubing.OperationThe sand plunger operates similar to the Wellmaster Viper. The sand plunger from PCS offers grooves at the bottom of the plunger that creates a spinning turbulent seal. Also, the sand plunger allows gas to flow into the plunger and clean out grooves to prevent sand from sticking the plunger.Lubricator: ConventionalFall Time: ft/m4OperationThe plungers come with a stationary plunger, retrieval plunger, traveling plunger, and drop off plunger. The traveling device is able to collect data in a shut-in or flowing well and is cycled just as any other plunger and caught in the lubricator. The Drop Off plunger attaches to the fishneck of the stationary plunger and is dropped in the well. When the two plungers reach the bottom the thermocouple activates at a predetermined temperature and the plungers separate. The Drop off plunger is cycled to the surface. When the stationary plunger is ready to come out, the retrieval plunger is dropped in the well, and an overshot grabs the stationary plunger and the two are cycle to the surface.OperationThe multi stage plunger creates bottom hole pressure by staging the well. The multi stage tool is usually landed between 40-70% of the way down the well. The bottom stage is a traditional plunger setup with a downhole spring, stop, and conventional plunger. When the well is open the bottom stage moves fluid up the hole and the gas bubble above it provides energy to the second stage. The top plunger lifts the column of fluid to the surface as the bottom plunger arrives at the multi stage assembly with a load for the next trip. When the well shuts, the top and bottom plungers fall simultaneously.Gas EntersOperationThe liquid aeration plunger removes the liquid load more efficiently and at higher velocities by jetting gas through orifices in the top of the plunger. The gas jetted through the plunger, as it travels upward, aerates the liquid above the plunger.5RingParaffinLow Pressure and/or Marginal WellDeviated WellsSnakeSolidPadName: Triple PadManufacturer: PCSName: Shuttle PlungerManufacturer: Go TekName: Single PadManufacturer: IPSName: Two-PadManufacturer: PCSName: Wobble WasherManufacturer: PCSName: SnakeManufacturer: PCSName: Standard Solid PlungerManufacturer: PCSExample Wells:Orr 2Lubricator: ConventionalFall Time: ft/mExample Wells:NoneExample Wells:James 4-24Mcalester 6-22State c1-28Hampton 3-18Kinnkin Pate 1-3Example Wells:Nan 1-15Simon 3-27Example Wells:Austin 5-13Heitner 4-13Picaro 2-36Example Wells:Quinton 3-20Example Wells:NoneLubricator: ConventionalFall Time: ft/m1 Ball and Seat (Flow Cage) – maintains the one way flow of liquids up the tubing and keeps liquids from the bottom stage until the top plunger can retrieve it.2 Seal Element (Pack Off) – Seals as fluids are delivered keeping fluid above the flow cage.3 Resettable locking mechanism – Holds the tool in open position for an easy installation and then sets to the closed position when depth is reached.4 Collar stop5 Bumper Spring – absorbs the impact of the arriving plunger.Lubricator: ConventionalFall Time: ft/mLubricator: ConventionalFall Time: ft/mLubricator: ConventionalFall Time: ft/mOperationThe Ring plunger is similar to the triple pad plungers. Shifting rings keep continuous contact against the tubing walls producing a highly effective seal as well as wiping the tubing before the paraffin can harden. The seal is affected due to the movement of gas by the specially shaped washer held against the tubing wall with eccentric springs.Lubricator: ConventionalFall Time: ft/mLubricator: ConventionalFall Time: ft/mOperationThe snake plunger operates as a normal conventional plunger. It offers a flexible core that allows for bending and movement through tubing irregularities.OperationThe solid plungers are heavy and able to cut through paraffin with faster fall velocities. The plunger has no moving parts and is durable.OperationThe Shuttle Plunger contains a temperature gauge, pressure gauge, and collar locator. Unlike the Smart plunger which is available in many different styles, the shuttle plunger is a traveling plunger and only available in a solid plunger style. The Shuttle plunger can be downloaded via usb to a laptop in the field for evaluation.OperationThe Pad plunger works as a typical conventional plunger and is available in 1, 2, and 3 pad models. The spring loaded pads press against the tubing wall in order to create a highly efficient seal bringing more fluid to the surface and avoiding liquid flowback.Cody Hopkins | Summer Intern 2010 | Arkoma Asset | Base Mgmt
2 Plunger Lift Reference Guide Base MgmtLife Cycle of the WellStage 1:Well is flowing above critical rate with all flow in mist flow, no liquid gradient at anytime.No deliquification RequiredStage 2:Well begins to bubble and slug when rates fall below critical.If velocity > 15ft/s the well is a candidate for a high speed non-conventional plunger such (i.e. pacemaker).The wells normally still have high Gas to Liquid Ratios, meaning that they do not require and shut in time. The high GLR also allows for flow of gas to sales after the arrival of the plunger at the lubricator (after-flow).The after-flow allows the two pieces of the plunger to distance themselves, creating a large by-pass area and reducing shut-in time. The reduced shut-in time, means more trips per-day and more water brought to surface.Stage 3:Well begins to have difficulty maintaining seal due to velocity getting below 15ft/s but greater than 10ft/s.Candidate for by-pass style, non-convention al plungerThese wells may still require a lot of trips to remain unloaded, but need little or no flow time after each trip. Pacemaker wells running with significant off time or wells that have just begun “slug – flow” conditions are indicators of this life cycle stage.These non-conventional plungers can reach the bottom almost as quick as the pacemaker, but do not require any after- flow since it is one piece.Stage 4:Well has velocity < 10ft/sCandidate for conventional style plunger (i.e. iron soap, pad, viper, etc).This stage of the life cycle occurs when GLR decrease and pressure build up is required to trip the plunger.The conventional plunger comes in many different styles in order to adapt to well conditions such as: sand, fluid load, tubing irregularities, or scale.Stage 5:Well has such low bottom-hole pressure that a conventional plunger doesn’t work.Candidate for multi stage plungerThis is the final stage in a wells life, when the GLR drops so low that a conventional plunger won’t cycle.The Multi-Stage plunger stages the well into parts and creates bottom hole pressure by reducing the distance any single plunger has to travel.Common Plunger Lift SetupIn this range for actual production, the recommendation would be to install a high speed non-conventional plunger (i.e. pacemaker).In this range, the recommendation would be to run a bypass style non-conventional plungerAt lower flow rates (below 10ft/s), a conventional style of plunger would be recommendedLubricatorsSurface EquipmentFazekas #5LubricatorController / Motor ValveFlow Line to SalesMaster ValveCody Hopkins | Summer Intern 2010 | Arkoma Asset | Base MgmtBumper Spring AssemblyThe lubricator is installed on top of the tree or master valve to cushions the plunger upon arrival into the wellhead to prevent damage. The spring inside absorbs the impact of the plunger. The catcher holds the plunger in place and allows for safe removal of the plunger or inspection. All lubricators are available with on or two outlets.PCS Bumper Spring Features:Standard Fishing NeckTapered bodySpring-Helps prevent down hole damage due to plunger fallMandrelStanding Valve Cage- ball and seat are used to hold liquid in the tubing“No-Go”-prevent fall through seating nippleCups-sits in the seating nipple8. Locking MechanismOrifice- allows flow through the bumper spring assemblyPCS Conventional LubricatorIPS Pace Maker LubricatorPace Maker SetupConventional SetupTop ViewCapBumper platePace Maker text is right side up, indicating it is for use with the pace makerBumper plateCapSpringSpringSpringPace Maker text is upside downThreaded to Remove PlungerThreaded to Remove PlungerShifting RodOutletOutletCatcherLedges to hold the spring or shifting rod in the lubricator.OutletCatcher (once plunger is at the surface, it can be caught by shifting the handle)CatcherIn this set-up the shifting rod is inserted into the spring. During the operation the spring and rod will be assembled as shown inside the lubricator.To change from the Pace Maker setup to this conventional setup, the upper portion must be unscrewed and flipped around. The shifting rod also must be pulled out and a second bumper spring ( not pictured) must be placed inside the existing spring.Standing valves
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