Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 18, p. 409.  Identify significant composers of the Classical and Romantic periods in Western music  Compare and contrast Classical and Romantic.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18, p. 409.  Identify significant composers of the Classical and Romantic periods in Western music  Compare and contrast Classical and Romantic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18, p. 409

2  Identify significant composers of the Classical and Romantic periods in Western music  Compare and contrast Classical and Romantic music  Describe the organization of music forms

3  Sonata  Tutti  Sonata allegro form  Coda  Rondo  Scherzo  Romantic period  Art song  Lieder  Program music  Program symphony  Idee fixe  Tone poem

4 Franz Joseph Haydn Franz Shubert Hector Berlioz

5  Age of Reason-  Era of intellectual enlightenment that began around 1650  Advances in science and art  Rise of the middle class – more influential  Demand for music for the masses  First public concerts

6

7  Sonata-  A work in several movements for one or more instruments  Primary form of the period  3 or 4 movements Fast-slow-fast Fast-slow-dance like-fast  Concerto – sonata for solo instrument and orchestra  Symphony – sonata for orchestra

8  Reflected scientific thinking  Simple, direct, more accessible than Baroque  Order and form were most important  Music written for specific occasions  Patronage system  Composers wrote on commission  Composers worked for churches, royal courts, and private citizens  Publishing flourished  Music evolved into a major cultural force

9  Leading composer of the classical era  One of the greatest composers of all time  Wrote in all musical forms  Tutti –  A section of a concerto in which all the instruments and/or voices perform together

10  Both used fast-slow-fast  Mozart’s called for a larger orchestra  Mozart added woodwinds, trumpets, horns, and timpani  Mozart blended the orchestra more with the solo parts  Instead of short motives, Mozart used fully developed themes  Mozart used more contrast in timbre and dynamics

11  Compare the first movement of Vivaldi’s “Spring” from The Four Seasons with the second movement of Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 21.Vivaldi’s “Spring” Piano Concerto No. 21. How are the two orchestras different? The Mozart orchestra is larger and makes use of woodwind tone colors in addition to the strings Which concerto has more “songlike” melodies? The Mozart concerto Which concerto exhibits the more dramatic contrasts of dynamics, texture, and density? The Vivaldi concerto How do the roles of solos and accompaniment differ in the two concertos? In the Vivaldi, there is a clear difference between the solo and the orchestra. The difference in the Mozart is more subtle. Which concerto uses the more subtle dynamic shading? The Mozart

12  Symphony –  An extended work for orchestra containing several contrasting movements  Franz Joseph Haydn ( )  Considered the: Father of the Symphony  Born in Vienna  Worked for the Esterhazy family for 30 years – patrons They had a theater for opera, skilled orchestra, and several talented singers

13 Haydn Esterhazy Palace

14  Visited England in 1791 and wrote the “London” symphonies  Wrote over 100 symphonies  Established the overall form of the symphony  4 contrasting movements Fast-slow-minuet – fast Minuet- A slow and stately French dance in triple meter  Upheld the ideals that music should be easily understood, ordered

15  Symphony No. 101 in D (The Clock) Symphony No. 101 in D (The Clock)  What is the meter? Duple  What is the tempo? Andante or moderate tempo  What rhythm might symbolize a “clock”? Why? 8 th note rhythm  What instrument plays the main theme? violins  What is the form of this movement? ABA  How is a sense of unity achieved? Repetition of the clock rhythm  How is contrast accomplished? Change of key, dynamics, new material  What in the music suggests that Haydn had a sense of humor? Using the clock rhythm

16  Form and organization of the first movement of the symphony was very important  Sonata Allegro Form  An ABA form composed of three sections: exposition, development, and recapitulation  Exposition (A section)- A presentation of the main music ideas  Development (B section)- An elaboration of one or both themes  Recapitulation (A section)- A restatement or repetition of the main thematic material  Coda A short concluding section of a piece of music that essentially ties together the main thematic threads and ends the piece

17  Symphony No. 40 in g minor by Mozart Symphony No. 40 in g minor  Describe the contrast between themes one and two. (figure 18-1, p. 415) Which theme has more tension? Theme one Which reflects a strong sense of repose? Theme two

18  Rondo-  A composition consisting of a recurring theme alternating with contrasting sections  Activity 4, p. 415 CD 11:18  “Rondo all’Ongarese” “Gypsy Rondo” by Haydn“Gypsy Rondo”  Decide which of the following organizational structures reflects the organization of this composition  1. AAA  2. ABA  3. ABACA

19  Ludwig van Beethoven ( )  Early years Born in Bonn, Germany Humble family Keyboard virtuoso Studied composition with Haydn In 1786 he visited Vienna and found a patron, Count Waldstein His mother died of tuberculosis when he was 17 His father died when he was 21 At 27 he began going deaf

20  Beethoven followed the rules of Classicism, in the beginning  Later works had a strong dramatic power combined with a sometimes dreamy quality  Sonatas – 3 or 4 movements with a break between  3 movements: Allegro – adagio – allegro  4 movements: insert a scherzo between the 3 rd and 4 th movements Vigorous and sometimes lighthearted movement in triple meter with a middle section or trio

21  Each movement had a specific organization  1 st movement – sonata allegro from: AABA  2 nd movement – sonata allegro form or a set of variations on a theme  3 rd movement – 3 part form  4 th movement – rondo or sonata allegro form  Emotional unity and expressive order hold together the movements in the sonata

22  1 st movement – sets a somber mood 1 st movement  2 nd movement – pensive 2 nd movement  3 rd movement – tragic 3 rd movement  Activity 5, p. 418

23  His symphonies mark the change from Classical to Romantic  Symphony No. 5 in c minor Symphony No. 5 in c minor  Expresses conflict with incredible force and emotion  Opens with a simple pattern that is one of the most identifiable motives in history  The motive is used throughout the work in different ways  Activity 6, CD 11:22 p. 419 – listen for the two themes of this symphony.CD 11:22

24  Premiered in Vienna in 1824  Follows emotional progression from darkness to light  Beethoven was totally deaf when he wrote this  The fourth movement sings of the triumph of the human spirit over adversity  Beethoven added a chorus  The text is from “Ode to Joy” by German poet Friedrich von Schiller  Activity 7, p. 420

25  Opens with discord  Orchestra sounds at war with itself  A strain of the “Joy” theme is heard but dismissed  The entire orchestra states the them  More rebellion  Solo baritone calls for the people to rejoice  The mood becomes more joyful as more voice then the orchestra take up the theme

26  Analyze the fourth movement of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphonyfourth movement  What is there about this music and this theme that is uplifting?  As you listen, follow the text and translation. Why does it help to know the meaning of the words?  How is the tension in the orchestra evident as it builds to the statement of the “joy” theme?  What, if anything, does Beethoven do to alter the “Joy” theme?

27  Romantic period-  A period during the 19 th century and early 20 th century when composers created music that often exploded with emotions  Romantic music  Revolt against formalism of the Classical era  Emancipate human feeling  World shaking emotional outbursts  The art song- A composition for solo voice and piano A favorite of the Romantic period

28   Most respected creators of German song  Wrote simple short, popular songs  Studied violin, piano, organ, singing, and theory  He captured the emotional essence of a poem in his music  Wrote 600 Lieder-  German art song

29  Text is from a poem by Goethe  It describes a struggle between the father of a gravely ill son and the phantom figure, Erlking  Written for a baritone  The singer changes his voice to fit the different characters  Through-composed-  Different music is provided for each stanza of a poem  Schubert uses a triplet rhythm to provide unity

30  “The Erlking” “The Erlking”  How does the singer help you to know when the speaker changes?  The singer’s expression  How does Schubert use dynamics to help you tell who is speaking  The Erlking always speaks with a hushed tone, like a ghost. The child screams with greater intensity  How many times does Schubert interrupt the repeated triplets in the piano accompaniment?  three  Which one of the characters in the story speaks without the triplet figure?  The Erlking, until the end

31  Program music-  Instrumental compositions that attempt to convey a specific idea without using lyrics  Term coined by Franz Liszt ( )  Program music was taken a step further by Hector Berlioz ( ) to develop the program symphony  Program symphony- A pictorial or descriptive orchestral work in several movements

32  Born in France  Studied medicine  Poured his emotions into his music  Revealed his love for his future wife in his music  Inspired by literature

33  5 movements that tell a story about a sensitive young musician with a wild imagination  Uses idee fixe-  A fixed melodic idea that recurs throughout all movements of a symphony  The idee fixe in Symphonie Fantastique represents the main character’s beloved  Activity 11, p. 427 CD 12:3CD 12:3  “March to the Scaffold”March to the Scaffold  Figure 18-4, p. 428

34  Composers began to use their music to show nationalistic pride  They included folk songs and dances  Tone poem-  A type of program music written for textual materials including stories or plays  Symphonic poem-  A long tone poem with multiple movements

35  Written by Bedrich Smetana ( )  Inspired by an excursion down the River Moldau, the longest river in the Czech Republic  Dedicated to his Czechoslovakian homeland  Activity 12, CD 12:4, p. 430 Activity 12CD 12:4

36  Modest Mussorgsky – embodies the spirit of Russian nationalism  Pictures at an Exhibition (1873) a tone poem composed for piano depicting different artworks by Victor Hartman  Movements are connected by the “Promenade” themePromenade

37  “The Great of Kiev”  Finale of Pictures at an Exhibition  Depicts a majestic nationalistic statement that conveys the dignity and stateliness of Hartmann’s design for a ceremonial gate planned for the Russian city of Kiev.  Compare 3 versions of Mussorgsky’s work Piano Orchestra Brass ensemble

38

39  Richard Wagner ( ) – German nationalistic composer  Stormy and egotistical  Showed unconstrained emotion  Explored expressive qualities of various instruments  Could wring every drop of expressiveness out of an orchestra

40  The Ring of Nibelung – based on Nordic legends The Ring of Nibelung  4 full operas Die Gotterdammerung – The Twilight of the Gods The Rhine Gold The Valkyrie Siegfried

41  “Siegfried’s Funeral Music” from Die GotterdammerungSiegfried’s Funeral Music  How does Wagner use instruments to convey Siegfried’s good deeds, his heroism, and his tragic end?  This work has the form of a funeral march. What qualities of the piece create the sense of solemnity and grief associated with a funeral?

42  In the years before World War I, the world turned against the extreme emotions of the Romantic Era  Richard Strauss ( )  Sergei Rachmanioff ( ) Richard Strauss Sergei Rachmanioff

43  Rondo  A composition consisting of a recurring theme alternating with contrasting sections  Scherzo  A vigorous and sometimes lighthearted movement in triple meter with a middle section or trio  Sonata  A work in several movements for one or more instruments  Tone poem  A type of program music written for textual materials including stories or plays

44  Tutti  A section of a concerto in which all the instruments and/or voices perform together  Program symphony  A pictorial or descriptive orchestral work in several movements  Program music  Instrumental compositions that attempt to convey a specific idea without using lyrics

45  Lieder  German art songs  Coda  A short concluding section of a piece of music that essentially ties together the main thematic threads  Art song  A composition for solo voice and piano

46  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart  Leading composer of the classical era  Used longer fully developed themes  Wrote: Piano Concerto No. 21  Franz Joseph Haydn  Considered: “Father of the Symphony”  Wrote: Symphony No. 101 in D (The Clock) Using what form? Sonata-allegro form

47  Ludwig van Beethoven  Spanned the Classical and Romantic periods  Keyboard virtuoso  Wrote: Piano Sonata in c minor (Pathetique) Symphony No. 5 in c minor “Ode to Joy” theme Symphony No. 9 in d minor  Franz Schubert  Wrote over 600 lieder  Wrote: “The Erlking”

48  Hector Berlioz  Wrote: Symphonie Fantastique (Fantastic Symphony)  Bedrich Smetana  Wrote: “The Moldau”  Modest Mussorgsky  Music embodied the spirit of Russian nationalism  Wrote: Pictures at an Exhibition

49  Richard Wagner  German composer known for writing … Opera  Wrote : The Ring of the Nibelung (The Ring Cycle)

50  Classical  Orderly  Followed set forms  restrained  Romantic  Dramatic  Emotional outbursts  Supercharged expression

51  Mozart  Same organization – fast, slow, fast  Larger ensemble, added woodwinds, brass, & timpani  Blended solo parts with full orchestra  Longer, full developed themes  Vivaldi  Fast, slow, fast  Smaller ensemble, just strings  Alternated tutti and solo  Short motives


Download ppt "Chapter 18, p. 409.  Identify significant composers of the Classical and Romantic periods in Western music  Compare and contrast Classical and Romantic."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google