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The Classical and Romantic Periods

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1 The Classical and Romantic Periods
Chapter 18, p. 409

2 What You Will Learn Identify significant composers of the Classical and Romantic periods in Western music Compare and contrast Classical and Romantic music Describe the organization of music forms

3 Vocabulary Sonata Tutti Sonata allegro form Coda Rondo Scherzo
Romantic period Art song Lieder Program music Program symphony Idee fixe Tone poem

4 Musician Profiles Franz Joseph Haydn Hector Berlioz Franz Shubert

5 Music of the Classical Period
Age of Reason- Era of intellectual enlightenment that began around 1650 Advances in science and art Rise of the middle class – more influential Demand for music for the masses First public concerts

6 Classical Era ARt

7 Sonata Sonata- A work in several movements for one or more instruments
Primary form of the period 3 or 4 movements Fast-slow-fast Fast-slow-dance like-fast Concerto – sonata for solo instrument and orchestra Symphony – sonata for orchestra

8 Classical music Reflected scientific thinking
Simple, direct, more accessible than Baroque Order and form were most important Music written for specific occasions Patronage system Composers wrote on commission Composers worked for churches, royal courts, and private citizens Publishing flourished Music evolved into a major cultural force

9 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Leading composer of the classical era One of the greatest composers of all time Wrote in all musical forms Tutti – A section of a concerto in which all the instruments and/or voices perform together

10 Compare Mozart’s Concerto to vivaldi’s
Both used fast-slow-fast Mozart’s called for a larger orchestra Mozart added woodwinds, trumpets, horns, and timpani Mozart blended the orchestra more with the solo parts Instead of short motives, Mozart used fully developed themes Mozart used more contrast in timbre and dynamics

11 Activity 1, p. 411 CD 11: 14 & 15 Compare the first movement of Vivaldi’s “Spring” from The Four Seasons with the second movement of Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 21. How are the two orchestras different? The Mozart orchestra is larger and makes use of woodwind tone colors in addition to the strings Which concerto has more “songlike” melodies? The Mozart concerto Which concerto exhibits the more dramatic contrasts of dynamics, texture, and density? The Vivaldi concerto How do the roles of solos and accompaniment differ in the two concertos? In the Vivaldi, there is a clear difference between the solo and the orchestra. The difference in the Mozart is more subtle. Which concerto uses the more subtle dynamic shading? The Mozart

12 Development of the symphony
An extended work for orchestra containing several contrasting movements Franz Joseph Haydn ( ) Considered the: Father of the Symphony Born in Vienna Worked for the Esterhazy family for 30 years – patrons They had a theater for opera, skilled orchestra, and several talented singers

13 Esterhazy Palace Haydn

14 Franz Joseph Haydn Visited England in 1791 and wrote the “London” symphonies Wrote over 100 symphonies Established the overall form of the symphony 4 contrasting movements Fast-slow-minuet – fast Minuet- A slow and stately French dance in triple meter Upheld the ideals that music should be easily understood, ordered

15 Activity 2, p. 412 CD 11:16 Symphony No. 101 in D (The Clock)
What is the meter? Duple What is the tempo? Andante or moderate tempo What rhythm might symbolize a “clock”? Why? 8th note rhythm What instrument plays the main theme? violins What is the form of this movement? ABA How is a sense of unity achieved? Repetition of the clock rhythm How is contrast accomplished? Change of key, dynamics, new material What in the music suggests that Haydn had a sense of humor? Using the clock rhythm

16 Sonata Allegro Form Form and organization of the first movement of the symphony was very important Sonata Allegro Form An ABA form composed of three sections: exposition, development, and recapitulation Exposition (A section)- A presentation of the main music ideas Development (B section)- An elaboration of one or both themes Recapitulation (A section)- A restatement or repetition of the main thematic material Coda A short concluding section of a piece of music that essentially ties together the main thematic threads and ends the piece

17 Activity 3, p. 414 CD 11:17 Symphony No. 40 in g minor by Mozart
Describe the contrast between themes one and two. (figure 18-1, p. 415) Which theme has more tension? Theme one Which reflects a strong sense of repose? Theme two

18 Rondo Form Rondo- Activity 4, p. 415 CD 11:18
A composition consisting of a recurring theme alternating with contrasting sections Activity 4, p. 415 CD 11:18 “Rondo all’Ongarese” “Gypsy Rondo” by Haydn Decide which of the following organizational structures reflects the organization of this composition 1. AAA 2. ABA 3. ABACA

19 Spanning Historical Periods
Ludwig van Beethoven ( ) Early years Born in Bonn, Germany Humble family Keyboard virtuoso Studied composition with Haydn In 1786 he visited Vienna and found a patron, Count Waldstein His mother died of tuberculosis when he was 17 His father died when he was 21 At 27 he began going deaf

20 Seeds of Romanticism Beethoven followed the rules of Classicism, in the beginning Later works had a strong dramatic power combined with a sometimes dreamy quality Sonatas – 3 or 4 movements with a break between 3 movements: Allegro – adagio – allegro 4 movements: insert a scherzo between the 3rd and 4th movements Vigorous and sometimes lighthearted movement in triple meter with a middle section or trio

21 Beethoven’s sonatas Each movement had a specific organization
1st movement – sonata allegro from: AABA 2nd movement – sonata allegro form or a set of variations on a theme 3rd movement – 3 part form 4th movement – rondo or sonata allegro form Emotional unity and expressive order hold together the movements in the sonata

22 Piano Sonata in c minor (Pathetique)
1st movement – sets a somber mood 2nd movement – pensive 3rd movement – tragic Activity 5, p. 418

23 Beethoven’s symphonies
His symphonies mark the change from Classical to Romantic Symphony No. 5 in c minor Expresses conflict with incredible force and emotion Opens with a simple pattern that is one of the most identifiable motives in history The motive is used throughout the work in different ways Activity 6, CD 11:22 p. 419 – listen for the two themes of this symphony.

24 Symphony No. 9 in d minor Premiered in Vienna in 1824
Follows emotional progression from darkness to light Beethoven was totally deaf when he wrote this The fourth movement sings of the triumph of the human spirit over adversity Beethoven added a chorus The text is from “Ode to Joy” by German poet Friedrich von Schiller Activity 7, p. 420

25 Symphony No. 9 in d minor 4th movement
Opens with discord Orchestra sounds at war with itself A strain of the “Joy” theme is heard but dismissed The entire orchestra states the them More rebellion Solo baritone calls for the people to rejoice The mood becomes more joyful as more voice then the orchestra take up the theme

26 Activity 8, p. 421 CD 12:1 Analyze the fourth movement of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony What is there about this music and this theme that is uplifting? As you listen, follow the text and translation. Why does it help to know the meaning of the words? How is the tension in the orchestra evident as it builds to the statement of the “joy” theme? What, if anything, does Beethoven do to alter the “Joy” theme?

27 The Romantic Period 1825-1900 Romantic period- Romantic music
A period during the 19th century and early 20th century when composers created music that often exploded with emotions Romantic music Revolt against formalism of the Classical era Emancipate human feeling World shaking emotional outbursts The art song- A composition for solo voice and piano A favorite of the Romantic period

28 Franz Schubert 1797-1828 Most respected creators of German song
Wrote simple short, popular songs Studied violin, piano, organ, singing, and theory He captured the emotional essence of a poem in his music Wrote 600 Lieder- German art song

29 “The Erlking” 1815 Text is from a poem by Goethe
It describes a struggle between the father of a gravely ill son and the phantom figure, Erlking Written for a baritone The singer changes his voice to fit the different characters Through-composed- Different music is provided for each stanza of a poem Schubert uses a triplet rhythm to provide unity

30 Activity 9 & 10, p. 424-425 CD 12:2 “The Erlking”
How does the singer help you to know when the speaker changes? The singer’s expression How does Schubert use dynamics to help you tell who is speaking The Erlking always speaks with a hushed tone, like a ghost. The child screams with greater intensity How many times does Schubert interrupt the repeated triplets in the piano accompaniment? three Which one of the characters in the story speaks without the triplet figure? The Erlking, until the end

31 Program music Program music-
Instrumental compositions that attempt to convey a specific idea without using lyrics Term coined by Franz Liszt ( ) Program music was taken a step further by Hector Berlioz ( ) to develop the program symphony Program symphony- A pictorial or descriptive orchestral work in several movements

32 Hector berlioz 1803-1869 Born in France Studied medicine
Poured his emotions into his music Revealed his love for his future wife in his music Inspired by literature

33 Symphonie Fantastique
5 movements that tell a story about a sensitive young musician with a wild imagination Uses idee fixe- A fixed melodic idea that recurs throughout all movements of a symphony The idee fixe in Symphonie Fantastique represents the main character’s beloved Activity 11, p. 427 CD 12:3 “March to the Scaffold” Figure 18-4, p. 428

34 Nationalism in Music Composers began to use their music to show nationalistic pride They included folk songs and dances Tone poem- A type of program music written for textual materials including stories or plays Symphonic poem- A long tone poem with multiple movements

35 The Moldau Written by Bedrich Smetana (1824-1884)
Inspired by an excursion down the River Moldau, the longest river in the Czech Republic Dedicated to his Czechoslovakian homeland Activity 12, CD 12:4, p. 430

36 Painting a Picture in mUsic
Modest Mussorgsky – embodies the spirit of Russian nationalism Pictures at an Exhibition (1873) a tone poem composed for piano depicting different artworks by Victor Hartman Movements are connected by the “Promenade” theme

37 Activity 13, p. 431 CD 12:5-7 “The Great of Kiev”
Finale of Pictures at an Exhibition Depicts a majestic nationalistic statement that conveys the dignity and stateliness of Hartmann’s design for a ceremonial gate planned for the Russian city of Kiev. Compare 3 versions of Mussorgsky’s work Piano Orchestra Brass ensemble

38 “Great Gate of Kiev”

39 Telling a Story through Words and Music
Richard Wagner ( ) – German nationalistic composer Stormy and egotistical Showed unconstrained emotion Explored expressive qualities of various instruments Could wring every drop of expressiveness out of an orchestra

40 The Ring Cycle Operas The Ring of Nibelung – based on Nordic legends
4 full operas Die Gotterdammerung – The Twilight of the Gods The Rhine Gold The Valkyrie Siegfried

41 Activity 14, p. 433 CD 12:8 “Siegfried’s Funeral Music” from Die Gotterdammerung How does Wagner use instruments to convey Siegfried’s good deeds, his heroism, and his tragic end? This work has the form of a funeral march. What qualities of the piece create the sense of solemnity and grief associated with a funeral?

42 In the years before World War I, the world turned against the extreme emotions of the Romantic Era
Richard Strauss ( ) Sergei Rachmanioff ( ) Sergei Rachmanioff Richard Strauss

43 Review: Terms Rondo Scherzo Sonata Tone poem
A composition consisting of a recurring theme alternating with contrasting sections Scherzo A vigorous and sometimes lighthearted movement in triple meter with a middle section or trio Sonata A work in several movements for one or more instruments Tone poem A type of program music written for textual materials including stories or plays

44 Terms Tutti Program symphony Program music
A section of a concerto in which all the instruments and/or voices perform together Program symphony A pictorial or descriptive orchestral work in several movements Program music Instrumental compositions that attempt to convey a specific idea without using lyrics

45 Terms Lieder Coda Art song German art songs
A short concluding section of a piece of music that essentially ties together the main thematic threads Art song A composition for solo voice and piano

46 Know the Composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Franz Joseph Haydn
Leading composer of the classical era Used longer fully developed themes Wrote: Piano Concerto No. 21 Franz Joseph Haydn Considered: “Father of the Symphony” Symphony No. 101 in D (The Clock) Using what form? Sonata-allegro form

47 Composers Ludwig van Beethoven Franz Schubert
Spanned the Classical and Romantic periods Keyboard virtuoso Wrote: Piano Sonata in c minor (Pathetique) Symphony No. 5 in c minor “Ode to Joy” theme Symphony No. 9 in d minor Franz Schubert Wrote over 600 lieder “The Erlking”

48 Composers Hector Berlioz Bedrich Smetana Modest Mussorgsky Wrote:
Symphonie Fantastique (Fantastic Symphony) Bedrich Smetana “The Moldau” Modest Mussorgsky Music embodied the spirit of Russian nationalism Pictures at an Exhibition

49 composers Richard Wagner German composer known for writing … Wrote :
Opera Wrote : The Ring of the Nibelung (The Ring Cycle)

50 Differences between Classical & Romantic periods
Orderly Followed set forms restrained Romantic Dramatic Emotional outbursts Supercharged expression

51 Differences between Mozart’s & Vivaldi’s concertos
Same organization – fast, slow, fast Larger ensemble, added woodwinds, brass, & timpani Blended solo parts with full orchestra Longer, full developed themes Vivaldi Fast, slow, fast Smaller ensemble, just strings Alternated tutti and solo Short motives

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