6The Functions of a Setting We left the home place behind, mile by slow mile, heading for the mountains, across the prairie where the wind blew forever.At first there were four of us with one horse wagon and its skimpy load. Pa and I walked, because I was a big boy of eleven. My two little sisters romped and trotted until they got tired and had to be boosted up to the wagon bed.That was no covered Conestoga, like Pa’s folks came West in, but just an old farm wagon, drawn by one weary horse, creaking and rumbling westward to the mountains, toward the little woods town where Pa thought he had an old uncle who owned a little two-bit sawmill.To create a mood or atmosphereTo show a reader a different way of lifeTo make action seem more realTo be the source of conflict or struggleTo symbolize an ideaTaken from “The Day the Sun Came Out” by D. Johnson
7Every story needs characters PeopleAnimalsOr Creatures
10Types of Characters People or animals Major characters Minor charactersRound charactersFlat characters
11Characterization Direct- writer tells what the character is like A writer reveals what a character is like and how the character changes throughout the story.Two primary methods of characterization:Direct- writer tells what the character is likeIndirect- writer shows what a character is like by describing what the character looks like, by telling what the character says and does, and by what other characters say about and do in response to the character.
12Direct Characterization …And I don’t play the dozens or believe in standing around with somebody in my face doing a lot of talking. I much rather just knock you down and take my chances even if I’m a little girl with skinny arms and a squeaky voice, which is how I got the name Squeaky.From “Raymond’s Run” by T. Bambara
13Indirect Characterization The old man bowed to all of us in the room. Then he removed his hat and gloves, slowly and carefully. Chaplin once did that in a picture, in a bank--he was the janitor.From “Gentleman of Rio en Medio” by J. Sedillo
15Factors in Analyzing Characters Physical appearance of characterPersonalityBackground/personal historyMotivationRelationshipsConflictDoes character change?
16PlotPlot is what happens and how it happens in a narrative. A narrative is any work that tells a story, such as a short story, a novel, a drama, or a narrative poem.
17Parts of a PlotInciting incident – event that gives rise to conflict (opening situation)Development- events that occur as result of central conflict (rising action)Climax- highest point of interest or suspense of storyResolution- when conflict endsDenouement- when characters go back to their life before the conflict
20Special Techniques of Plot Suspense- excitement or tensionForeshadowing- hint or clue about what will happen in storyFlashback- interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the pastSurprise Ending- conclusion that reader does not expect
21A hint about what will happen next is called foreshadowing For example, if you hear this:Then you know someone’s about to get eaten!
22Great stories have a conflict Man vs. ManMan vs. NatureMan vs. MachineMan vs. SocietyMan vs. Himself
23Conflict Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces Every plot must contain some kind of conflictStories can have more than one conflictConflicts can be external or internalExternal conflict- outside force may be person, group, animal, nature, or a nonhuman obstacleInternal conflict- takes place in a character’s mind
24ThemeA central message, concern, or insight into life expressed through a literary workCan be expressed by one or two sentence statement about human beings or about lifeMay be stated directly or impliedInterpretation uncovers the theme
25Example of Theme“Every man needs to feel allegiance to his native country, whether he always appreciates that country or not.”From “A Man Without a Country” by Edward Hale pg. 185 in Prentice Hall Literature book
26The point of view is the perspective of the story “I was framed! I just wanted to borrow a cup of sugar!”“That rotten wolf tried to eat us!!!!”
27Whether you’re the reader, or the writer, a great story includes all these literary elements!!! settingthemeplotforeshadowingclimaxprotagonistconflictcharactersresolutionantagonistpoint of viewdenouement
28Writing A Literary Analysis Essay How to Determine a Thesis
29The Goal of AnalysisTo demonstrate some new understanding of the literary workState this new understanding in the form of an assertionSupport your analysis with evidence and commentary.
30What’s an AssertionAn assertion is an opinion about a general subject, like life, relationships, gender or class that you think the author is making through some element (character, theme, symbol) of the novel
31Think aloud: Finding an assertion I noticed that in Stargirl the main character Stargirl changesStargirl changes twice during the novel: first she is an eccentric, free-spirit, later she tries to conform to the behaviors of her peers, but finally she returns to her true individualistic self
32What’s Next? Now make an assertion based on this analysis of Stargirl: Ask: What new understanding about life, relationships, gender or class does this present?Answer: Stargirl doesn’t like this society…she finds it shallow and phony…so she quits it.
33Formula to make an assertion: (author’s name) is making a point about (general subject); the specific point s/he is making is that _____________________.Example: In Stargirl, author Jerry Spinelli makes a point about the superficial nature of modern society; the specific point he is making is that society is shallow and does not value individuality and it therefore should be rejected.
34From Formula to ThesisRevise your assertion statement adding that the author is using the character(s) to make that specific pointExample: Jerry Spinelli, author of Stargirl, uses the protagonist Stargirl to argue that modern society is superficial and incapable of valuing individuality and should be rejected.This then becomes the preliminary thesis.
35Let’s try another one:I noticed that in The Pearl, the main character, Kino, changes.Kino changes during the course of the novel. First he is a young father and husband who is poor but content. However, after he finds a great pearl, he changes into a ruthless murderer.
36What’s next? Now make an assertion based on this analysis of Kino. What new understanding about life, relationships, gender or class does this present? (In other words, why does he change? – this is your analysis.)Answer: Kino changes because of his greed. He finds out that greed is a destructive force that can ruin one’s life.
37Formula to make an assertion: (author’s name) is making a point about (general subject); the specific point s/he is making is that _____________________.Example: Author John Steinbeck makes a point about the destructive nature of greed in man; the specific point he is making is that placing one’s greedy needs over the more important intangible needs of family can destroy a man’s life.
38From Formula to ThesisRevise your assertion statement adding that the author is using the character(s) to make that specific point.Example: Through Kino’s struggles with the pearl, Steinbeck demonstrates that placing one’s greedy needs over the more important intangible needs of family can destroy a man’s life.
39Think Aloud: Character compare/contrast I noticed that Arthur, in Button, Button and Chris in Hundred Bucks of Happy are similar in that both decide to do the right thing. Both characters are tempted by wealth, but choose to make good, selfless decisions
40A Formula To Use To Make an Assertion Use the formulaRichard Matheson, author of Button, Button and Susan Beth Pfeffer, author of A Hundred Bucks of Happy are making a point about self-sacrifice; the specific point they are making is that good people think of others before themselves.
41Now turn this into a thesis. Revise your assertion statement adding that the author is using the character to make that specific point.The authors Matheson and Pfeffer are using their characters of Arthur and Chris to illustrate that to be a good person, one must put the welfare of others above one’s own desires.