Literary Elements They are different pieces that come together to create the story.
Story Elements Setting Characters Plot Point of View Theme Symbolism
SettingSetting Details that describe: Furniture Furniture Scenery Scenery Clothing Clothing Weather Weather Time of day Time of day Time of year Time of year Time and place where the story occurs
The Functions of a Setting To create a mood or atmosphere To show a reader a different way of life To make action seem more real To be the source of conflict or struggle
Types of Characters Main Character Minor Character Dynamic Character Static Character Protagonist vs. Antagonist
Definitions… Main Character: this character is who the story is about, also called the Protagonist Minor Character: they are involved in the story, but are not in the story all the time Dynamic Character: this kind of character grows and changes throughout the story as a result of the conflict, also called a Round character Static Character: this kind of character does not change at all throughout the story, also called a Flat character Antagonist: this kind of character is involved in the conflict with the protagonist and causes the problem for them
Characterization The methods an author uses to develop the personality of a character. Two primary methods of characterization: Direct- writer makes clear statements about character Direct- writer makes clear statements about character Indirect - writer shows what a character is like by what the character says and does and by what other characters say and do in response to the character. Indirect - writer shows what a character is like by what the character says and does and by what other characters say and do in response to the character.
Direct Characterization Soda is handsomer than anyone else I know. Not like Darry—Soda’s movie-star handsome, the kind that people stop on the street to watch go by. He’s not tall like Darry, and he’s a little slimmer, but he has a finely drawn, sensitive face that somehow manages to be reckless and thoughtful at the same time. He’s got dark gold hair that combs back—long and silky and straight—and in the summer the sun bleaches it to a shining wheat-gold. His eyes are dark brown—lively, dancing, recklessly laughing eyes that can be gentle and sympathetic one moment and blazing with anger the next. From The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton
Indirect Characterization The old man bowed to all of us in the room.Then he removed his hat and gloves, slowly and carefully. Chaplin once did that in a picture, in a bank--he was the janitor. From “ Gentleman of Rio en Medio ” by J. Sedillo
Plot Plot is what happens and how it happens in a narrative. A narrative is any work that tells a story, such as a short story, a novel, a drama, or a narrative poem.
Parts of a Plot Exposition- introduces the story’s characters, setting, and situation in the story Rising Action- develops the conflicts or problems in a story Climax- highest point of interest or suspense of story Falling Action- shows what happens after the climax Resolution- gives the story’s final outcome
Special Techniques of Plot Suspense- excitement or tension Foreshadowing- hint or clue about what will happen in story Flashback- interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the past Surprise Ending- conclusion that reader does not expect
Conflict Conflict Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces Every Every plot must contain some kind of conflict Stories Stories can have more than one conflict Conflicts Conflicts can be external or internal External External conflict- conflict- outside force may be person, group, animal, nature, or a nonhuman obstacle Internal Internal conflict- conflict- takes place in a character ’ s character ’ s mind
Theme A central message, concern, or insight into life expressed through a literary work Can be expressed by one or two sentence statement about human beings or about life May be stated directly or implied
What would be the theme of The Outsiders? There could be many themes present, but there are 2 main emerging themes that I noticed. 1. Trying to close the gap that’s present between the rich and the poor. 2. The title contains a theme in itself too. “Outsider” means someone who does not fit in. Many of the characters in the story feel that way as the story unfolds.
Point of View The vantage point from which the story is told. The person telling the story is the narrator. Three Main Types: 1 st Person: the narrator is also a character in the story 3 rd Person Limited: the narrator is not in the story and reveals the thoughts of only one character 3 rd Person Omniscient: as the story is told, many aspects are shown and the thoughts of many characters are shared, as if from a distance From what point of view is The Outsiders told? How do we know?
Symbolism Symbols are objects, characters, figures, and colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts. An object can be used to represent something that otherwise would not be understood. Examples: Cars in The Outsiders represent the power and money that the Socs have and the Greasers do not. Greaser hair represents who the Greasers are. They cannot afford material objects, but their hair portrays their identity as a distinctive group.