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Nationalism: The Traditional Orientation

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1 Nationalism: The Traditional Orientation
Chapter 4 Nationalism: The Traditional Orientation

2 Nations A nation is a people who
Share demographic and cultural similarities Possess a feeling of community (mutually identify as a group distinct from other groups Want to control themselves politically and be politically separate Exists because its members want it to exist.

3 Nations: Demographic/Cultural Similarities
Demographics: language, race, religion, SES Common culture Shared historical experience

4 Nations: Community Perception is critical
Most members of a nation will never know others but feel a sense of community anyway “We-Group” – defined by similarity of members but also in terms of how the members differ from other groups or “They-Groups”

5 Nations: Desire to be Politically Separate
The difference between an ethnic group and a nation is that a nation, unlike an ethnic group, desires to be self-governing, or at least autonomous. Line between ethnic groups and nations not always well-defined Ethnonational group: once the prevailing opinion of the ethnic group perceives it to be distinct politically as well as culturally

6 Nationalism Second aspect of the traditional political orientation
Establishes values about what is good vs. bad Directs adherents on how to act (patriotism) Links together those who adhere to the ideology Distinguishes group from those who are not in group

7 Nationalism Connects people through Sentimentality towards homeland
Sense of identity and self-esteem through national identification Motivation to help country Nation is primary political identifier

8 Nation-States Third element in traditional way of defining and organizing world state politically Nation-state combines idea of a nation with that of a state Where a nation exists within the borders of a currently existing state

9 Rise of Nationalism Modern Idea Early Nationalism
Holy Roman Empire (religion/Latin) Fragmentation after HRE Growth of nationalism intertwined with growth of state and then nation-state Conversion of Anglicanism in England helped spread nationalism to the masses

10 Modern Nationalism Emerged around 1700s
Growth of emotional attachment to location Growth of Sovereignty—ex. American Revolution Ideas of nation implied equality (liberalism) Destroyer of empires

11 Patterns of Nation-State Formation
Unification Nationalism: easiest form of state building when a strong sense of cultural and political identity exists among a people, and the formation of a nation precedes that of the state. Europe—examples where nations came first and later became states

12 Nation-State Formation
Scenario Two: State is created first and then has to try to forge a sense of common national identity among the people and then with the people to the state. Example: African colonization

13 Evolution Nation building and state building not locked in a strict sequential interaction Example: United States

14 Nationalism in Practice
Myth vs. Reality: Do Nation States really exist? Most states are not ethnically unified Many nations are split by more than one boundary

15 Patterns of Tension Ideal model of One Nation, One State
One state, Multiple Nations One nation, multiple States One Nation, No Sate Multiple Nations, Multiples States

16 One State, One Nation About 10% of all countries
Example: The United States (about 99% live in actual US, no ethno-national groups fighting for autonomy) Proud to be an American

17 One State, Multiple Nations
30% of all states have no nation that constitute a majority Example: Canada (French-Canadian, English-Canadian, etc)

18 One Nation, Multiple States
Departure from the nation-state ideal Occurs when a nation overlaps border of two or more states Many occurred during cold war (example: Korea, Viet Nam, Germany) Other examples exist: Serbia and Montenegro

19 One Nation, No State Stateless nation –another patter of misfit between state and nation When a nation is a minority in one or more states (aka, peripheral nationalism) Example: The Palestinians

20 Multiple Nations, Multiple States
Misfit pattern When several states and nations overlap Failed state: a country so fragmented that it cannot be said to exist as a unified political or national entity (example: Afghanistan)

21 Positive Nationalism In philosophical and historical beginning, positive (idealism) “Nationalism promotes democracy.” “Nationalism discourages imperialism.” “Nationalism allows for economic development.” “Nationalism allow for diversity and experimentation.”

22 Negative Nationalism Growth of militant nationalism
Reluctance to help others Exclusionism Xenophobia: fear of others; “they-groups” Internal oppression External aggression

23 Self-Determination=Goal
May end many of the abuses of ethnic oppression More problematic in practice Tribalism tendency

24 Negatives of Self-Determination
Untangling groups Microstates: countries with tiny populations International instability Recognition of new countries?

25 The Future of Nationalism
Can be traced back to ancient times but many political scientists see it as particularly relevant in past 500 years. WWII showed examples of fascism and imperialism as a result of aggressive nationalism. Continued strength of nationalism unquestionable

26 Future of Nationalism Demise of nationalism possible but not imminent
Will nationalism continue as source of main political identification? Answers Unclear

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